FIGURE 1. Geographical and geological setting of the Fonelas SSC-3 site. 1, location of the Guadix and Baza Basins in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula; 2, digital elevation model (DEM) (3D) of the Guadix and Baza Basins, and the high ground surrounding them. The position of Fonelas SCC-3 is indicated along with other important Early Pleistocene sites in the Guadix area?? (FP-1: Fonelas P-1; M-9: Mencal-9) and the three most important in the Baza area?? (VM: Venta Micena; BL-5: Barranco León-5; FN-3: Fuente Nueva-3); 3, DEM of the Guadix and Baza Basins showing their Early Pleistocene fossil sites (those listed above along with others, as yet undescribed in the literature, found during the Fonelas Project), plus the area's Paleozoic and Mesozoic ridges, corridors and associated Neogene basins. The current landscape model for the Fardes River Valley includes large expanses of badlands that increase the number outcrops of fossiliferous units and paleontological sites.
FIGURE 2. Stratigraphic profiles for Fonelas SCC-1 (which contain FSCC-3) and Fonelas P-1. Magnetostratigraphic information for each is provided (modified after Arribas et al., 2009; Pla-Pueyo et al., 2011). FSCC-3 is located at the lower part of the reverse Chron C2r.2r; its age is 2.4-2.5 Ma (Pla-Pueyo et al. 2011).
FIGURE 4. Occlusal view of the right M2 of Anancus arvernensis mencalensis nov. ssp. (Fonelas SCC-3-001, holotype) showing the abbreviations employed in the description of the dental structures. Scale bar equals 5 cm.
FIGURE 5. Occlusal view of the right M3 of Anancus arvernensis mencalensis nov. ssp. (Fonelas SCC-3-001, holotype) showing the abbreviations employed in the description of the dental structures. Scale bar equals 5 cm.
FIGURE 6. Comparative occlusal view of the M3 of Anancus arvernensis and Anancus osiris. 1, Anancus sp. cf. Anancus arvernensis turoliensis from Molino de Manuel, Alfacar (from Bergounioux and Crouzel ); 2, Anancus arvernensis arvernensis from Baza-1 (after Ros ); 3, Anancus arvernensis mencalensis from Fonelas SCC-3, described in this paper; 4, Anancus arvernensis chilhiacensis from Chilhac (from Boeuf ); 5, Anancus osiris from Gizeh (from Arambourg ). Red arrows show the rectangular shape of the distal part of the tooth in A. arvernensis mencalensis nov. ssp. Note the resemblance with the shape of the Miocene Anancus from Alfacar. Specimens not to scale.
FIGURE 7. Scatter plot of M3 measurements (in mm) from Western European Anancus (plus A. osiris from North Africa). Note: no metric data are available in the bibliography for the M3 of A. arvernensis from Las Higueruelas (specimens held at the Museo Geominero do not allow the complete visualization of M3).