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APPENDIX 1. Illustrations showing examples of how measurements were taken.1, proximal view of cuneiform; 2, medial-volar view of cuneiform; 3, proximal view of lunar; 4, lateral view of lunar; 5, medial view of scaphoid; 6, lateral view of scaphoid; 7, distal view of unciform; 8, lateral view of magnum; 9, dorsal view of 1st phalanx; 10, medial view of MC I; 11, dorsal view of metacarpal. D equals greatest dorsal-volar depth; W equals greatest transverse width; H equals proximal-distal height (length); PDV equals proximal dorsal-volar diameter; MDV equals minimum dorsal-volar diameter; DDV equals distal dorsal-volar diameter; PT equals proximal transverse diameter; DT equals distal transverse diameter; MT equals minimum transverse diameter; LF equals length of facet; WF equals width of facet.

appendix a

APPENDIX 2. Illustrations showing examples of how measurements were taken. A, proximal view of cuneiform; B, medial-volar view of cuneiform; C, proximal view of lunar; D, lateral view of lunar; E, medial view of scaphoid; F, lateral view of scaphoid; G, distal view of unciform; H, lateral view of magnum; I, dorsal view of 1st phalanx; J, medial view of MC I; K, dorsal view of metacarpal. D equals greatest dorsal-volar depth; W equals greatest transverse width; H equals proximal-distal height (length); PDV equals proximal dorsal-volar diameter; MDV equals minimum dorsal-volar diameter; DDV equals distal dorsal-volar diameter; PT equals proximal transverse diameter; DT equals distal transverse diameter; MT equals minimum transverse diameter; LF equals length of facet; WF equals width of facet. (This corresponds with letters assigned to drawings).

 

Measurement

AZMNH p7487

Rhynchotherium (Frick, 1933; Pasenko, 2007; Pasenko, 2011)

Stegomastodon (Ferretti 2008; Alberdi et al. 2009; Lucas et al. 2011 )

Haplomastodon chimborazi (Ferretti 2010)

Mammuthus primigenius (Toepfer 1957; Ziegler 2001)

Mammut americanum (Graham et al., 1983; Miller, 1987)

Lunar

Greatest width

93.4

100

140

144

118, 137, 142, 164

113, 126

Greatest depth

99.2

-

148

137

109, 130, 136, 153

137

Greatest height

60.3

-

82

78

67, 78, 83, 100

66, 72

Width of articular facet for radius

79.7

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for radius

85.7

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for trapezoid, magnum, & unciform

93.9

-

-

-

-

-

Right Cuneiform (Pyramidal)

Greatest width

107.7

98

128, 118, 187

157

117, 170, 154, 181

146

Greatest depth

86.4+

-

109, 123, 133

124

-

129

Greatest height

53.5

49

59, 51, 61

55

60, 65, 75, 76

-

Width of articular facet for ulna

92.4

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for ulna

72.5

-

-

-

-

-

Right Cuneiform (Pyramidal)

Depth of articular facet for unciform

78.8

-

-

-

-

-

Right Magnum

Greatest depth

105.4

-

109, 102

104, 127

-

130

Greatest height

84.9

-

96, 112

82, 87

-

96, 87, 100

Height of articular facet for unciform

43.3

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for unciform

81

-

-

-

-

-

Right unciform

Greatest width

94

105

103, 110

88, 132

107, 133, 130

134,130

Greatest depth

99.2

-

106, 141

102, 130

122, 135, 158

107,109

Greatest height

86.5

70

91, 110

78, 92

100, 107, 133

-

Width of articular facet for lunar and cuneiform

86.3

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for lunar and cuneiform

78

-

-

-

-

-

             

Right scaphoid

Greatest width

43.8

-

53

67

48, 65, 74

-

Greatest depth

79.6

-

96

130

93, 115, 108, 103

-

Greatest height

85.9

-

98

109

122, 140, 145, 159

107

Depth of articular facet for radius

53.6

-

-

-

-

-

Width of articular facet for radius

28.2

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for lunar

39.2

-

-

-

-

-

Width of articular facet for lunar

14.6

-

-

-

-

-

Right Metacarpal I

Greatest length

57

70, 132

84, 129, 118

-

-

-

Proximal D-V diameter

43

61, 93

43

-

-

-

Proximal transverse diameter

36

42, 66

57

-

-

-

Distal D-V diameter

31

43, 64

58

-

-

-

Distal transverse diameter

25

46, 64

50

-

-

-

Right Metacarpal I

Minimum transverse diameter

20

30, 41

30, 79

-

-

-

Right and Left Metacarpal II

Minimum transverse diameter

45, 44

-

79.6

47, 54, 56

-

-

Minimum D-V diameter

33, 35

-

-

48, 50, 55

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx I, 2nd digit

Greatest length

53, 59

56

79, 78

-

-

-

Minimum transverse diameter

55, 55

-

-

-

-

-

Right Phalanx 2, 2nd digit

Greatest length

44

-

-

-

-

-

Right Phalanx 3, 2nd digit

Greatest length

30

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Metacarpal III

Minimum transverse diameter

53, 55

-

77

63, 68, 74

-

-

Minimum D-V diameter

42, 40

-

-

45, 43, 55

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 1, 3rd digit

Greatest length

58

-

80, 85

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 1, 3rd digit

Minimum transverse diameter

52, 55

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 2, 3rd digit

Greatest length

50, 50

-

-

-

-

-

Right Phalanx 3, 3rd digit

Greatest length

23, 28

-

-

-

-

-

Right and left Metacarpal IV

Minimum transverse diameter

52, 49

-

72

54

-

-

Minimum D-V diameter

41, 37

-

-

71

-

-

Right and left Phalanx 1, 4th digit

Greatest length

59, 56

63

81, 74

-

-

-

Minimum transverse diameter

31, 32

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 2, 4th digit

Greatest length

50, 46

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 3, 4th digit

Greatest length

27, 30

-

-

-

-

-

Right Metacarpal V

Greatest length

82

90

124, 139

130

-

-

Right Metacarpal V

Proximal D-V diameter

49

-

61

70

-

-

Proximal transverse diameter

50

-

77

40

-

-

Distal D-V diameter

44

-

67

52

-

-

Distal transverse diameter

49

-

73

83

-

-

Minimum transverse diameter

45

-

52

66

-

-

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