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TABLE 1. Echinoids recorded in the Mediterranean Pliocene bathyal deposits and their occurrence throughout Mediterranean Miocene to Early Pleistocene. †, extinct; ?, doubtful records. Bathymetric ranges of extant populations are from Mortensen (1928, 1943), Tortonese (1965, 1977) and Phelan (1970).

Species

Depth range
(m)

Miocene

Zanclean

Piacenzian

Gelasian

Calabrian

Cidaris cidaris
(Linnaeus, 1758)

50-2000

x

x

x

x

x

Cidaris margaritifera
Meneghini, 1862

deeper than 200

 

x

x

x

x

Cidaris peroni
Cotteau, 1877

deeper than 200

 

x

x

x

x

Stylocidaris affinis
(Philippi, 1845)

30-1000

 

 

 

x

x

Histocidaris rosaria
(Bronn, 1831)

deeper than 200

x

x

x

x

x

Histocidaris sicula
Borghi, 1999

deeper than 200

 

 

x

x

x

Echinus acutus
Lamarck, 1816

20-1400

 

 

x

x

x

Echinus melo
Lamarck, 1816

25-1100

 

 

 

x

x

Stirechinus scillae
Desor, 1856

deeper than 200

 

 

x

x

x

Genocidaris maculata
Agassiz, 1869

12-500

x

x

x

x

x

Echinocyamus pusillus
(Müller, 1776)

0-1250

x

x

x

x

x

Schizaster braidensis
Botto Micca, 1896

deeper than 200

 

x

x

x

?

Spatangus purpureus
(Müller, 1776)

15-900

x

x

x

x

x

Brissopsis atlantica
Mortensen, 1913

100-3200

 

 

x

x

x

Brissopsis lyrifera
Forbes, 1841

5-1500

x

x

x

x

x

Holanthus ovatus
(Sismonda, 1842)

deeper than 200

 

x

x

x

?

 

TABLE 2. Echinoids recorded in the present Mediterranean deep waters (below 250/300 m depth), their bathymetric and Atlantic geographical distribution (Kohler, 1927; Tortonese, 1965, 1977).

Species Total depth range (highest abundance) (m) Bottom Atlantic distribution
Cidaris cidaris

(Linnaeus, 1778)

50-2000

(60-200)

mainly mud Eastern Atlantic: from Norway to Cape Verde.
Stylocidaris affinis

(Philippi, 1845)

30-1000 algal prairies, coralligenous and mud Eastern Atlantic: from North-Western Africa to Cape Verde Islands.

Western Atlantic: from Bermuda Is. to Antilles.

Genocidaris maculata

Agassiz, 1869

12-500 coralligenous and mud Eastern Atlantic: Western Africa, Azores Is.

Western Atlantic: North American coasts.

Echinus acutus

Lamarck, 1816

20-1400

(100-400)

mainly mud Eastern Atlantic: from Iceland to Angola.
Echinus melo

Lamarck, 1816

25-1100

(30-50)

hard and soft (mud) substrates Eastern Atlantic: from Iceland to Cape Verde.
Neolampas rostellata

Agassiz, 1869

95-1260 detritus Eastern Atlantic: from the Bay of Biscay to Morocco. Western Atlantic: Caribbean.
Echinocyamus pusillus

(Müller, 1776)

0-1250

(20-40)

coarse bioclastic sand Eastern Atlantic: from Norway to Sierra Leone.
Spatangus purpureus

(Müller, 1776)

15-900

(20-40)

coarse sands and mud Eastern Atlantic: from Iceland to Angola.
Echinocardium flavescens

(Müller, 1776)

5-360

(30-40)

sand, mud and detritus Eastern Atlantic: from Iceland to Portugal and Azores.
Brissopsis atlantica

Mortensen, 1913

100-3200 mainly mud Eastern Atlantic: Western Africa.

Western Atlantic: North American coasts.

Brissopsis lyrifera

Forbes, 1841

5-1500 mainly mud Eastern Atlantic: from Norway to Sierra Leone and Southern Africa.
Holanthus expergitus

(Lovén, 1874)

400-3120 mud Eastern Atlantic: from Iceland to Cape Verde and Azores Islands.

Western Atlantic: from Davis Strait to Antilles.

TABLE 3. Stirechinus scillae, Desor, 1856: measurements of the examined complete specimens.

Inventory Code D H Da Dp nA nIA Locality
MG.1034.18 (Figure 6.4, 6.11) 61.0 38.4 - 22.6 - - Salice (Messina)
MG.1034.11 57.1 36.5 10.8 - - - Contrada Coilare (Messina)
MG.1034.19 (Figure 6.5) 54.0 31.2 10.4 - 22-23 15-16 Punta Lazzi
MG.1034.10 (Figure 6.1-3) 33.5 20.4 9.2 12.7 18-19 12-13 Contrada Coilare (Messina)
MG.1034.15 14.5 9.1 3.9 - - - Punta Lazzi
MG.1034.17 8.3 4.6 - 3.7 - - Punta Lazzi
MG1035.22 (Figure 6.9-10) 6.4 3.5 2.6 3.2 7-8 7 Punta Mazza
MG1035.20 4.2 2.0 2.3 2.3 6 5-6 Punta Mazza

TABLE 4. Echinoid species recorded at Capo Milazzo.

  Punta Lazzi Cala S. Antonio Light house Punta Mazza
Species

Piacenzian Gelasian

Calabrian

Tyrrhenian

Piacenzian Gelasian

Calabrian

Tyrrhenian

Piacenzian Gelasian

Calabrian

Tyrrhenian

Piacenzian Gelasian

Calabrian

Tyrrhenian

Cidaris cerullii (Checchia Rispoli, 1923) x                      
Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) x     x                
Cidaris margaritifera Meneghini, 1862 x x   x     x     x x  
Histocidaris sicula Borghi, 1999 x x   x     x     x    
Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 x     x                
Stirechinus scillae Desor, 1856 x x   x           x    
Spatangus purpureus (Müller, 1776) x     x           x    
Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816)           x            
Genocidaris maculata Agassiz, 1869           x            
Echinocyamus pusillus (Müller, 1776)           x            

TABLE 5. Strictly bathyal echinoids inhabiting muddy bottoms of the present Eastern Atlantic (Kohler, 1927; Mortensen, 1928).

Species Depth range
(m)
Distribution in the eastern Atlantic
Trigonocidaris albida Agassiz, 1869 570 - 700 Bay of Biscay, Madeira and Azores Islands
Poriocidaris purpurata (Thomson, 1872) 750 - 1800 from Iceland to Canary Islands
Phormosoma placenta Thomson, 1872 275 - 2500 from Iceland to the Gulf of Guinea
Calveriosoma hystrix (Thomson, 1872) 360 - 1525 from Iceland to Canary and Azores Islands
Araeosoma fenestratum (Thomson, 1872) 145 - 900 from Denmark to Portugal
Hygrosoma petersii (Agassiz, 1880) 730 - 2870 Gulf of Biscay to Azores Is., North African coasts

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