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TABLE 1. Comparative measurements (in mm) of skulls. *Approximate.

Taxa LMC LDS MWP WS HS OMf5L WB
S. leptocephalum (FMNH P 14274)

S. leptocephalum (FMNH P 14267)

S. leptocephalum (MLP 3-409)

S. leptocephalum (MLP 3-408)

S. leptocephalum (MLP 3-402)

S. leptocephalum (MACN 13880)

S. leptocephalum (MACN 13883)

S. leptocephalum (MACN 9625)

S. leptocephalum (MMP 1155)

S. leptocephalum (MFCA 757)

520

400

415

400

470

550

515

---

520

510

110

90

85

85

105

110

105

110

110

111

109

100

95

90

90

100

90

105

120

94

100

90

85

75

95

100

90

97

100

93

125

111

105

100

105

125

115

---

145

105

295

225

230

200

250

290

275

270

260

254

117

111

100

82

100

110

100

100

115

98

S. bravardi (MMP 9-S)

S. bravardi (MMP 31-S)

S. bravardi (MMP 128-S)

S. bravardi (MMP 458-S)

S. bravardi (MMP 157-S)

410

500

405

385

560

90

109

100

88

113

75

95

85

80

96

75

95

85

81

80

113

135

116

110

117

230

295

242

213

278

105

112

120

77

116

V. bucklandi (MCL 4262)

V. bucklandi (MCL 4293)

365

405

110

110

87

90

70

77

100

110

190

230

95

100

C. tarijensis (CTES-PZ 7151)

C. tarijensis (MMP 1267)

C. tarijensis (FMNH P 14243)

C. tarijensis (FMNH P 14238)

C. tarijensis (FMNH P13733)

C. tarijensis (MD-97-23)

C. tarijensis (MNPA 005750)

C. tarijensis (MNPA 005766)

C. tarijensis (PIMUZ A/V 0512)

540

540

500

550

490

465

482

*466

504

120

135

120

135

130

112

130

126

131

97

90

90

100

97

90

97

110

110

123

110

120

105

110

100

110

106

97

113

140

125

127

120

117

120

---

136

300

283

285

285

290

285

290

*273

303

120

125

123

123

120

112

120

---

116

C. chiliensis (MHIN-UNSL GEO V199)

C. chiliensis (ROM 2089)

520

450

*120

*90

---

---

*110

---

110

---

*300

250

110

105

C. cuvieri (MCL 4265)

C. cuvieri (MCL 4259)

*370

350

100

100

*80

*85

*85

---

---

---

220

210

120

---

TABLE 2. Acronyms and list of specimens of Scelidotherium, Valgipes, and Catonyx mentioned in the text.

Material Taxa Stratigraphic and geographic procedence
FMNH P 14274 S. leptocephalum Pleistocene, Río Quequén, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
FMNH P 14267 Pleistocene, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MACN 9625 "Upper Pampean", Laguna Vital, Chascomús, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MACN 13880 "Pampean", Necochea, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MACN 13883 "Pampean", Necochea, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MLP 3-409 "Upper Pampean", Argentina.
MLP 3-402 "Pampean", Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MLP 3-408 "Upper Pampean", Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MMP 1155 Lobería Formation, Lujanian, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MFCA 757 "Pampean" Formation, right bank of the Paraná River, Alvear, Santa Fe, Argentina.
BM(NH)M 37626 (Type) S. bravardi Ensenada Formation, "Toscas" del Río de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MMP 9-S Ensenadan, NE of the city of Mar del Plata, in front of Santa Elena beach, General Pueyrredón, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MMP 31-S Ensenadan?, coastal cliffs in front of Parque Camet, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MMP 128-S Miramar Formation, base of the cliffs in front the dairy farm of the field of Cobo Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MMP 458-S Ensenadan, coastal cliff, 800 m to the NNE of the pipe drain of the city of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MMP 157-S Ensenadan?, Estrada beach, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MCL 4262 V. bucklandi Late Pleistocene, Serra do Ramallo, North of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
MCL 4293 Pleistocene, Gruta Volta da Serra 3, São José das Missões, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
MCL 4264 Late Pleistocene, Iraquara, Brazil.
CTES-PZ 7151 C. tarijensis Late Pleistocene, Lavalle, Corrientes, Argentina.
CTES-PZ 1690 Yupoí/Toropí Formation, Late Pleistocene, arroyo Toropí, Corrientes, Argentina.
FCS 96.I15/1/2 Pleistocene, Olavarría, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
FMNH P 14243 Pleistocene, Padcaya, Bolivia.
FMNH P 14238 Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
FMNH P 13733 Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MNH TAR 1260 (Type) Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MNPA-V 005769 Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MNPA-V 005750 Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MNPA-V 005766 Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MNPA-V s/n (MUT 166) Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MNPA-V s/n (MUT 446) Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MNPA-V s/n (MUT 007) Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
NRM-N 4444 Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MACN 1138   Pleistocene, Tarija, Bolivia.
MMP 3989 Ensenadan, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MMP 1267 Bonaerian, north of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
MD-97-23 Bonaerian-Lujanian, Playa del Barco, Pehuen có, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
PIMUZ A/V 0512 Pleistocene, arroyo Maciel, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
BM(NH)M 2819 C. chiliensis Late Pleistocene, Tamarugal, Tarapacá district, Chile.
SGO-PV 188 Late Pleistocene, close to the Desaguadero River, Ulloma, La Paz, Bolivia.
ROM 2089 Late Pleistocene, Guayas Department, Ecuador.
ROM 4572 Late Pleistocene, Guayas Department, Ecuador.
MHN-UNSL-GEO-V 199 Late Pleistocene, Uspara Formation, Pasos Malos, Merlo, San Luis, Argentina.
MCL 4265 C. cuvieri Late Pleistocene, Iraquara, Brazil.
MCL 4259 Late Pleistocene, Gruta do Túnel, Santana, Brazil.
MCL 22682 Pleistocene, Brazil.
MCL 22683 Pleistocene, Brazil.
ZMUC 1668 Late Pleistocene, Lapa Grande de Genette, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

TABLE 3. Mean of the measurements of the skulls from the two morph types of dorsal crests of Scelidotherium leptocephalum and Catonyx tarijensis. (±) is standard deviation. (*) indicate significant differences in the medians with a Kruscal-Wallis Test (p<0.05).

Taxa Variable Measurements p values
S. leptocephalum LCM x 477,37 (± 55,10) 0,581
LDS x 102,1 (± 10,94) 0,900
MWP x 99,3 (± 9,79) 0,981
WS x 92,5 (± 7,96) 0,957
HS x 115,24 (± 13,51) 0,676
OMf5L x 254,9 (± 29,91) 0,352
WB x 103,3 (± 10,30) 0,828
C. tarijensis LCM x 508,8 (± 31,02) 0,603
LDS x 126,56 (± 7,78) 0,263
MWP x 97,89 (± 7,80) 0,999
WS x 109,00 (± 8,44) 0,111
HS x 124,75 (± 9,32) 0,317
OMf5L x 290,13 (± 7,49) 0,984
WB x 119,8 (± 4,19) 0,968

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