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FIGURE 1. Three topological hypotheses for the evolution of the pectoral girdle elements from the basal neodiapsid condition to basal eosauropterygian condition are depicted in two-dimensions. Large black dot - glenoid; Small black dot - coracoid foramen; A- anterior margin of the coracoid; M-medial margin of the coracoid; CL - clavicle; INCL - interclavicle; SC - scapula; ST - sternum.

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FIGURE 2. Topological homologies underlying the proposed muscle reconstructions, using as a model the nothosaur Ceresiosaurus calcagnii PIMUZ T3983 (left) and the basal plesiosaur Meyerasaurus victor cast of SMNS12478 (right).

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FIGURE 3. Muscle reconstruction of the pectoral girdle musculature of the Eosauropterygia using data from the extant phylogenetic bracket, the fossil record and developmental patterns.

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FIGURE 4. Humeral insertions in a basal neodiapsid, Nothosaurus and Cryptoclidus .

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FIGURE 5. M. subcoracoscapularis. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 in fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 6. M. scapulodeltoideus (= m. deltoideus scapularis, = m. dorsalis scapulae, = m. teres major. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus and 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 7. M. clavodeltoideus (= m. deltoideus clavicularis, = m. deltoideus). Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 8. M. scapulohumeralis (= m. scapulohumeralis caudalis, = m. scapulohumeralis posterior). Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 9. M. supracoracoideus (= m. coracobrachialis superior, = m. coracobrachialis brevis dorsalis). Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 10. M. coracobrachialis longus and brevis. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 11. M. latissimus dorsi. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 12. M. triceps brachii. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in ventral view, 2 in lateral view, 3 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 4 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 5 in ventral view, 6 in lateral view, 7 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 8 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 9 in ventral view, 10 in lateral view, 11 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 12 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 13. M. trapezius . Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 14. M. serratus. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view (orange for Level II inference), 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 15. M. levator scapulae. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 16. M. costocoracoideus. Reconstruction for Neusticosaurus 1 in anterior view, 2 in ventral view, 3 in lateral view, 4 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 5 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Ceresiosaurus 6 in anterior view, 7 in ventral view, 8 in lateral view, 9 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 10 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view. Reconstruction for Rhomaleosaurus 11 in anterior view, 12 in ventral view, 13 in lateral view, 14 fleshed-out muscle reconstruction and 15 complete skeletal reconstruction in lateral view.

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FIGURE 17. Comparison of pectoral girdle musculature reconstruction between this study and previously published reconstructions.

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