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APPENDIX 1

Text of Concolorcorvo (1773): Gauderios

Estos son unos mozos nacidos en Montevideo y en los vecinos pagos. Mala camisa y peor vestido, procuran encubrir con uno o dos ponchos, de que hacen cama con los sudaderos del caballo, sirviéndoles de almohada la silla. Se hacen de una guitarrita, que aprenden a tocar muy mal y a cantar desentonadamente varias coplas, que estropean, y muchas que sacan de su cabeza, que regularmente ruedan sobre amores. Se pasean a su albedrío por toda la campaña y con notable complacencia de aquellos semibárbaros colonos, comen a su costa y pasan las semanas enteras tendidos sobre un cuero, cantando y tocando. Si pierden el caballo o se lo roban, les dan otro o lo toman de la campaña enlazándolo con un cabestro muy largo que llaman rosario. También cargan otro, con dos bolas en los extremos, del tamaño de las regulares con que se juega a los trucos, que muchas veces son de piedra que forran de cuero, para que el caballo se enrede en ellas, como asimismo en otras que llaman ramales, porque se componen de tres bolas, con que muchas veces lastiman los caballos, que no quedan de servicio, estimando este servicio en nada, así ellos como los dueños.

Muchas veces se juntan de éstos cuatro o cinco, y a veces más, con pretexto de ir al campo a divertirse, no llevando más prevención para su mantenimiento que el lazo, las bolas y un cuchillo. Se convienen un día para comer la picana de una vaca o novillo: le enlazan, derriban y bien trincado de pies y manos le sacan, casi vivo, toda la rabadilla con su cuero, y haciéndole unas picaduras por el lado de la carne, la asan mal, y medio cruda se la comen, sin más aderezo que un poco de sal, si la llevan por contingencia. Otras veces matan sólo una vaca o novillo por comer el matambre, que es la carne que tiene la res entre las costillas y el pellejo. Otras veces matan solamente por comer una lengua, que asan en el rescoldo. Otras se les antojan caracuces, que son los huesos que tienen tuétano, que revuelven con un palito, y se alimentan de aquella admirable sustancia; pero lo más prodigioso es verlos matar una vaca, sacarle el mondongo y todo el sebo que juntan en el vientre, y con sólo una brasa de fuego o un trozo de estiércol seco de las vacas, prenden fuego a aquel sebo, y luego que empieza a arder y comunicarse a la carne gorda y huesos, forma una extraordinaria iluminación, y así vuelven a unir el vientre de la vaca, dejando que respire el fuego por la boca y orificio, dejándola toda una noche o una considerable parte del día, para que se ase bien, y a la mañana o tarde la rodean los gauderios y con sus cuchillos va sacando cada uno el trozo que le conviene, sin pan ni otro aderezo alguno, y luego que satisfacen su apetito abandonan el resto, a excepción de uno u otro, que lleva un trozo a su campestre cortejo.

Venga ahora a espantarnos el gacetero de Londres con los trozos de vaca que se ponen en aquella capital en las mesas de estado. Si allí el mayor es de a 200 libras, de que comen doscientos milords, aquí se pone de a 500 sólo para siete u ocho gauderios, que una u otra vez convidan al dueño de la vaca o novillo, y se da por bien servido.


 

Text of Concolorcorvo (the original Spanish was written in 1773 and this is a loose modernization in terms of the English):

Gauderios

These are boys born in Montevideo and the neighboring regions. They wear a bad shirt and worse dress, covered up with one or two ponchos. Their bed is made with the saddle pads, and serves them as a chair or pillow. They get a small guitar that they play badly and sing out of tune (so spoiling them) several songs dealing regularly with love. They wander at will throughout the country and with remarkable complacency from those semi-barbarous settlers, eat at their expense and spend entire weeks lying on a hide, singing and playing the guitar. If their horse is lost or stolen, they will get another from the countryside by lassoing it with a long halter that they call a rosary. They also carry another lasso with two balls on the ends, the size of the regular ones that are used to play games, which are often made of stone and lined with leather, so the horse becomes entangled in them, as well as in other called 'branches', composed of three balls, which often hurts the horses that become useless, estimating this service as nothing, as much as their owners.

Many times they come together in groups of four or five, and sometimes more, under the pretext of going to the field to have fun, carrying with them no more for their maintenance than the lasso, the balls and a knife. They will spend a day eating the rump cap of a cow or bullock: it is lassoed, brought down and well-lashed from the feet and hands they removed, while the animal is almost alive, the whole rump with its skin, they also remove a few carvings of meat from the side, they barely roast it and eat it undercooked, with no more dressing than a little of salt, if they brought any by chance. Sometimes they only kill a cow or bullock to eat the matambre, which is the meat between the ribs and the skin. Sometimes they kill only to eat a tongue that they roast on the embers. Other times they crave caracuces, which are the bones that have marrow, that they stir with a stick, and then feed on that admirable substance; but most prodigious is to see them kill a cow, get the guts and all the tallow that collects in the belly, and with only an ember of fire or a piece of dried cow dung, set fire to that tallow, which then begins to burn and spreads to the fat flesh and bones, forming an extraordinary lighting, and so rejoins the belly of the cow, which breathes fire by the mouth and the hole, leaving it overnight or a substantial part of the day to roast well, and in the morning or afternoon the gauderios surround it and with his knives take out the piece that want, without bread or any other dressing, and then when they have satisfied their appetite they leave the rest, except for one or another, that carry a piece to his countryside entourage.

Come now to frighten us the journalists of London with the chunks of beef that are put in that capital on the tables of state. The largest is 200 pounds, serving two hundred milords, here it becomes 500 for only seven or eight gauderios, who at one time or another invite the owner of the cow or bullock, who then considers himself well served.

APPENDIX 2

Interactive Figures 3 and 4.

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