FIGURE 1. Location of Solna Jama Cave in Europe indicated by red star ( 1), in Poland marked by red square ( 2), in the environs of Gniewoszów village indicated by red star ( 3) and map of the site ( 4) after Pulina (1996) and Stefaniak et al. (2009).
FIGURE 2. Environs of Solna Jama Cave entrance ( 1), showing the fissured crystalline limestones, in which the cave developed. The “Wolverine Niche” ( 2) and the corrosion, phreatic features of the cave passage (3). The “Wolverine Niche” is the place in the cave, where partially preserved skeleton of particularly large Gulo gulo was found (Photo by K. Stefaniak).
FIGURE 3. Ursus arctos priscus m2 (JSJ/Ua/1) from Solna Jama Cave in occlusal view. Note robust build and arctoid shape of tooth, with only slightly expanded, buccal margin of the talonid. Scale bar equals 10 mm.
FIGURE 4. Gulo gulo cranium from Solna Jama Cave (JSJ/Gg/1-1) in dorsal view (left) compared with a cranium from a large modern male from Scandinavia (right) from collection of Natural History Museum University of Wrocław (coll. no. M/500328). Scale bar equals 10 mm.
FIGURE 5. Gulo gulo cranium from Solna Jama Cave (JSJ/Gg/1-1) in ventral view (left) compared with a cranium from a large modern male from Scandinavia (right) from collection of Natural History Museum University of Wrocław (coll. no. M/500328). Note particularly powerful dentition of the individual from Solna Jama Cave in comparison with recent G . gulo. Scale bar equals 10 mm.
FIGURE 6. Metacarpals (mtcp) and metatarsals (mtts) of Gulo gulo from Solna Jama Cave. From left to right: right mtcp III (JSJ/Gg/1-29), left mtcp V (JSJ/GG/1-31), left mtts II (JSJ/Gg/1-33), left mtts III (JSJ/Gg/1-34), left mtts IV (JSJ/Gg/1-35) and right mtts V (JSJ/Gg/1-36). Scale bar equals 10 mm.
FIGURE 7. Scatter diagram showing the ratio of m1 trigonid breadth (B tri) to m1 talonid breadth (B tal) in the forms of Gulo : G. schlosseri and G. gulo. Data from Döppes (2001): late Pleistocene G. gulo and recent G. gulo ; data from Marciszak (2012): G. schlosseri and late Pleistocene G. gulo (part).
FIGURE 8. Occurrence of members of the genus Gulo in the late Quaternary of Poland (after Marciszak, 2012 and references therein). Red dot: Gulo schlosseri; black dot: G . gulo from late middle Pleistocene ( 3-5) and late Pleistocene-Holocene ( 3-12). Localities: 1, Żabia Cave; 2, Kozi Grzbiet; 3, Biśnik Cave; 4, Cave no. 4 on the Birów Hill; 5, Deszczowa Cave; 6, Nietoperzowa Cave, Ciemna Cave; 7, Mamutowa Cave; 8, Borsuka Cave; 9, Cave in Czarkowa; 10, Niedźwiedzia Cave; 11, Północna Duża Cave, Naciekowa Cave; and 12, Solna Jama Cave.
FIGURE 9. Right mandible of Mustela eversmanii (JSJ/Mev/1) from Solna Jama Cave. Note relatively short and robust body mandible and massiveness of the symphysal area. Scale bar equals 10 mm.
FIGURE 10. Scatter diagram showing the ratio of mandiblar height (measured after m1) to m1 length in fossil and extant Mustela eversmanii and Mu. putorius. Data from Marciszak (2012) and references therein.
FIGURE 11. Skulls of Mustela nivalis from Poland: recent specimens ( 1-3) and the fossil from Solna Jama Cave ( 4). 1, robust, adult male; 2, adult female; 3, young, adult female; and 4, adult female. Note fully developed sagittal crest in individual from Solna Jama Cave, indicating fully mature age. Scale bar equals 10 mm.
FIGURE 12. Scatter diagram showing the ratio of total calvarium length to zygomatic breadth in extant Mustela nivalis from Poland, compared with the fossil specimen from Solna Jama Cave.
FIGURE 13. Scatter diagram showing the ratio of lower carnassial (m1) length (Lm1) and breadth (B m1) in late Pleistocene and Recent Mustela nivalis from Poland. The Solna Jama Cave specimen displays a moderately large size, with the length of m1 less than 4 mm, typical of the late Pleistocene and postglacial period.
FIGURE 14. Scatter diagram showing the ratio of total length to proximal epiphysis breadth in late pleistocene-holocene Capreolus capreolus phalanx II. Middle Pleistocene locality: Kozi Grzbiet and Miesenheim 1. Late middle and late Pleistocene locality: Weimar Ehringsdorf, Biśnik Cave, Chlupáč Cave and Deszczowa Cave. Postglacial and Holocene locality: Biśnik Cave (uppermost layers), Jasna Strzegowska Cave and Poland in general. Data from Stefaniak (2015) and references therein.