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TABLE 1. Best partition scheme for Bayesian analysis as obtained from Partition Finder (Lanfear et al., 2012).

Best model Subset partitions Subset sites
JTT+G TTN 1-1479
JTT+G CNR1 1480-1814
JTT+G BCHE 1815-2146
JTT+G EDG1 2147-2466
JTT+G RAG1 2467-3066
JTT+G RAG2 3067-3215
JTT+G ATP7A 3216-3444
JTT+G TYR1 3445-3587
JTT+G Adora3 3588-3698
JTT+G BDNF 3699-3885
JTT+G ADRB2 3886-4153
JTT+G PNOC 4154-4260
JTT+G A2AB 4261-4543
JTT+G BRCA1, BRCA2 4544-5574, 5575-7256
JTT+G APOB, DMP1 7257-7710, 9718-10592
JTT+G GHR 7711-8026
JTT+G VWF 8027-8417
JTT+G ENAM 8418-9717
JTT+G IRBP 10593-11010
MTMAM+G Collagen alpha 1 and 2 11011-13038
Standard discrete Morphology 13039-16698

 

TABLE 2. Skeletal elements of isotemnid specimens from Cañadón Vaca.

  T. externa
MPEF-PV 8166
T. externa
MNHN CAS 844
T. externa
MNHN CAS 64
T. externa
AMNH 28698
T. externa
AMNH 28447
T. externa
AMNH 28905
T. externa
AMNH 28563
cf. T. externa
AMNH 142463
A. distentus
AMNH 28906
A.distentus
AMNH 28647
P. similis
AMNH 28904
P. similis
AMNH 28635
Isotemnidae indet.
AMNH 28690
Skull x x   x             M1 only    
Mandible x   x   x                
Scapula x         x     x        
Humerus x         x x   x   x    
Ulna x         x x   x   x    
Radius x           x   x x x    
Manus                 x x x    
Pelvis x         x              
Femur x         x           x x
Tibia x                   x x x
Pes x             x x   x   x

 

TABLE 3. Dental measurements of Thomashuxleya; * =taken from Simpson (1967).

    p1 p2 p3 p4 m1 m2 m3
    Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width
T. rostrata MACN 10370* 13.7 11.8 17.5 12.7 18.1 14.8 20.9 16.6            
MACN 10539*             19.9 17.8 26 19.8 26.4 19.5 37.2 16.9
MACN 10546*             21.5 16.8            
AMNH 28692*         19.5 16.5     26 16.4 28.5 18.8    
AMNH 28764*             21.8 13.7            
                             
Mean 13.7 11.8 17.5 12.7 18.8 15.7 21.0 16.2 26 18.1 27.5 19.2 37.2 16.9
SD NA NA NA NA 1.0 1.2 0.8 1.8 0.0 2.4 1.5 0.5 NA NA
n 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1
T. externa MACN 10540*         16.5 14.6 19 17.2 21   28   37  
MACN 10537*             16.3 13 19.5 14 23 15.5    
AMNH 28447*     14.2 11.1 16.2 11.6 18.1 13 22.0 15.6 27.5 16.5 31.6 15.8
AMNH 28697*             17.3 14.2 23.2 15.9 25.5 17.2 36 16.6
AMNH 28756*     14.7 10.9 15.7 12.8 16.4 14.2 21.8 16.3 25.6 17.8 32.3 16.3
AMNH 28698* 11.0 10.0 15.1 12.6 16.7 13.6 16.5 14.6 24 16.1 26 17.8 37 17
AMNH 28686*                         34.5 17.0
AMNH 28822*                 20 16.4 23 18.0    
Mean* 11 10 14.7 11.5 16.3 13.2 17.3 14.4 21.6 15.7 25.5 17.1 34.7 16.5
SD* NA NA 0.5 0.9 0.4 1.3 1.1 1.5 1.6 0.9 2.0 1.0 2.4 0.5
n* 1 1 3 3 4 4 6 6 7 6 7 7 6 5
MPEF-PV 8166 12.8 8.3 15.4 10 16.5 10.1 16.4 13.3 20.1 15.6 22.5 15.3 32.3 15.7
 
 

 

P1 P2 P3 P4 M1 M2 M3

 

 

Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width
T. rostrata MACN 10370* 15.4 15.7 17.0 27.2 19.5 31.2 21 35            
MACN 10542*                 29.5 41.8 33.0 44.2 28.8 40.8
Mean* 15.4 15.7 17 27.2 19.5 31.2 21 35 29.5 41.8 33 44.2 28.8 40.8
SD* NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
n* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
T. externa MACN 10543*                 24 34 28.5 35.9    
AMNH 28699*     17.5 22.1 16.8 26.4 18.5 32.1 23.8 35.8 26.7 42   39.5
AMNH 28757* 13.8 11.5 15.2 22.1 18 26     25.7   27.2 39.2    
AMNH 28698* 10 11     16   18 33.2 23.9 38.7 27.2 41 26 41
MNHN CAS 844 10.84 13.86 17.79 22.93 18.94 26.80 19.13 31.25 21.40 32.75 22.71 35.98 26.55 35.46
Mean* 11.5 12.1 16.8 22.4 17.4 26.4 18.5 32.2 23.8 35.3 26.5 38.8 26.3 38.7
SD* 2.0 1.5 1.4 0.5 1.3 0.4 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.6 2.2 2.8 0.4 2.9
n* 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 4 5 5 2 3
MPEF-PV 8166 10.2 10.5 14.0 16.2 15.0 21.6 14.6 25.9 25.2 31.3 27.9 36.9 24.0 32.0

 

 

TABLE 4. Postcranial measurements of MPEF-PV 8166. * Translated from Spanish in Elissamburu (2012).

  Value
(mm)
  Acronym
  Left Rigth   Scott
(1990)
Elissamburu
(2012)
Scapula  
Height of the spine 31.0 31.4      
Humerus  
Humerus functional length* 193 204   H1 LFH
Humerus trochlear diameter* 52.0 43.3   H4 DtrH
Maximum length 211 210      
Maximum diameter of the head 44.0 40.5      
Maximum diameter of the mayor tuberosity   46.6      
Maximum diameter of the minor tuberosity   16.6      
Maximum widht of the trochlea 30        
Radius  
Maximum length 155 153      
Maximum mediolateral width of the medial shaft 14.1 14.0      
Maximum diameter of the head 32.0        
Minimum diameter of the head 20.3 20.4      
Maximum diameter of the neck 20.3 19.5      
Mediolateral width of the distal epiphysis   36.0      
Diameter perpendicular to the maximum width of the distal epiphysis   31.6      
Ulna  
Anteroposterior diameter of the diaphysis 28.3 28.1      
Olecraneum height 64.9 63.7      
Anteroposterior diameter of the oleocranon 32.6        
Proximo-distal length of the trochlear notch 35.9        
Trochlear notch width   32.6      
Width of anconeal process   20.5      
Femur  
Anteroposterior diameter of the shaft   25.5   F7 DAPF
Mediolateral diameter of the shaft   36.2   F6 DTF
Tibia  
Mediolateral diameter of proximal epiphysis   55.0   T2 DTpT
Anteroposterior diameter of proximal epiphysis   44.8      
Lateral condyle transverse width   28.0      
Lateral condyle anteroposterior width   25.0      
Astragalus  
Transverse width of tibial trochlea 27.7     Li 1  
Minimum width of the neck 14.8        
Width sustentacular facet 17.4        
Navicular  
"Dorsal-plantar" width   25.6      
Astragalar facet transverse width   24.0      
Astragalar facet dorsoventral depth   25.0      
Pelvis  
Maximum width of the ilium, above the acetabulum   42.3      

 

TABLE 5. Isotemnid astragali measurements in mm.

Specimen No. Locality Maximum length Trochlear width Maximum width Head width
MPEF-PV 8166 Cañadón Vaca   27.7    
AMNH 142463 Cañadón Vaca   35.9 41.4  
AMNH FM 14501 "Notostylops beds" 32.8 21.8 32.1 17.7
AMNH 28690 Cañadón Vaca 22 12 20.6  
AMNH 142464 Cañadón Vaca 20.5 8.9 16.7 9.3

 

TABLE 6. Results from the Wilcoxon signed ranks test comparing topologies carried out in PAUP. Meridungulata = constraint with all SANUs within a clade; N/L= Notoungulata (Thomashuxleya, Toxodon) and Litopterna (Macrauchenia, Protolipterna) monophyly constraints for each clade (but not both together); p values greater than 0.05 indicate no difference between optimal and competing topology.

Topology Tree length Rank sums N z p
  122374 (best)      
N/L 122391 52385.0/--48640.0 449 -0.77 0.4390
Meridungulata 122424 214600.5/-193555.5 903 -1.49 0.14

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