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APPENDIX 1.

Definitions, measurements (in mm, unless otherwise stated) and equations used (Janis, 1990; Scott, 1990; Tsubamoto, 2014) to estimated the body mass (BM) in kg of MPEF-PV 8166. PE= Percent of error.

Variable Acronym Definition Type Dataset Value Equation R2 % PE Slope Intercept BM BM + PE BM - PE
Lower molar row length LMRL Measured along the base of the teeth Dental All ungulates 75.6 log BM= 3.265*log(LMRL)-0.536 0.941 31.9 3.27 -0.536 396 522 269
First lower molar length FLML Measured at the occlusal surface of the tooth Dental All ungulates 20.1 log BM= 3.263*log(FLML)+1.337 0.93 34.6 3.26 1.34 389 524 254
First lower molar width FLMW   Dental All ungulates 15.6 log BM= 2.909*log(FLMW)+2.030 0.92 38.4 2.91 2.030 316 437 194
First lower molar area FLMA FLMA= FLML*FLMW Dental All ungulates 313.3 log BM= 1.553*log(FLMA)+1.701 0.93 33.2 1.55 1.7 378 503 252
Second lower molar length SLML Measured at the occlusal surface of the tooth Dental All ungulates 22.5 log BM= 3.201*log(SLML)+1.130 0.94 31.9 3.2 1.130 289 381 197
Second lower molar area SLMA SLMA= SLML*Second Lower Molar Width Dental All ungulates 343.7 log BM= 1.563*log(SLMA)+1.541 0.94 33.5 1.56 1.54 320 427 213
Third lower molar area TLMA TLMA= Third lower molar length *Third lower molar width Dental All ungulates 508.9 log BM= 1.580*log(TLMA)+1.404 0.93 33.1 1.580 1.4 479 638 321
Second upper molar length SUML Measured at the occlusal surface of the tooth Dental All ungulates 27.9 log BM= 3.184*log(SUML)+1.091 0.93 34.7 3.18 1.09 494 666 323
Second upper molar width SUMW Measured at the occlusal surface of the tooth Dental All ungulates 36.9 log BM= 3.004*log(SUMW)+1.469 0.92 38.9 3 1.47 1501 2085 917
Second upper molar area SUMA SUMA=SUML*SUMW Dental All ungulates 1029.5 log BM=1.568*log(SUMA)+1.277 0.94 32.7 1.57 1.28 1002 1329 674
Posterior jaw length PJL Measured as the horizontal distance from the back of the jaw condyle to the posterior border of m3 Crania All ungulates 65.3 log BM= 2.412*log(PJL)+0.031 0.93 36.5 2.41 0.03 26 35 16
Maximum width of the mandibular angle WMA Measured from the junction of the posterior part of m3 with the jaw to the maximally distant point on the angle of the jaw Crania All ungulates 105.5 log BM= 2.803*log(WMA)-0.352 0.92 40.5 2.8 -0.35 209 293 124
Length of the ridge for the masseteric attachment MFL Measured from the posterior portion of the jaw glenoid to the most anterior extent of the scar for the origin of the masseter muscle Crania All ungulates 153 log BM= 2.950*log(MFL)-1.289 0.94 35.0 2.950 -1.289 143 193 93
Humerus functional length (cm) H1 The distance between the most proximal point of the head and the most distal point of the trochlea Postcranial All ungulates 19.85 log BM= 3.4026*log(H1)-2.3707 0.92 28 3.4026 -2.37 111 142 80
Humerus trochlear diameter (cm) H4 The transverse distance of the distal articular surface Postcranial All ungulates 4.76 log BM= 2.4815*log(H4)+0.4516 0.95 22 2.4815 0.45 136 166 106
Anteroposterior diameter of the femur (cm) F6 The transverse diameter of the diaphysis at its midpoint Postcranial All ungulates 3.62 log BM=2.8210*log(F6)+0.9062 0.94 23 2.8210 0.91 304 373 234
Mediolateral diameter of the shaft (cm) F7 The anteroposterior diameter of the diaphysis at its midpoint Postcranial All ungulates 2.55 log BM=2.6016*log (F7)+0.9119 0.94 26 2.6016 0.91 93 117 69
Diametro transverso proximal de la tibia (cm) T2 The transverse diameter of the tibia’s proximal epiphysis Postcranial All ungulates 5.5 log BM=2.8491*log(T2)-0.2495 0.95 21 2.8491 -0.25 72 88 57
Transverse width of tibial trochlea Li1   Astragalus Various mammals 27.7 ln BM= 2.789*ln(Li1)+2.078 0.98 28.83 2.79 2.08 84 109 60

 

 

APPENDIX 2.

Selected measurement (in cm) and multivariate equations used (Mendoza et al., 2006) to estimated the body mass in kg (BM) of MPEF-PV 8166. PE= Percent of error.

Adj. R2 %MPE mid
PE
LMRL LPRL JMA JMC JD JMB BM BM+ mid PE BM -mid PE
0.98 21-25 23 7.56 5.86 6.53 10.55 4.88   177 217 167
0.98 21-25 23 7.56 5.86 6.53 10.55 4.88 11.6 184 226 174

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