TABLE 1. Dental trait variables organized by categories.

Teeth durability      
Hypsodonty (HYP): brachydont (1) mesodont (2) hypsodont (3)
Horizodonty (HOD): brachyhorizodont (1) mesohorizodont (2) hypsohorizodont (3)
Cutting structures      
Acute lophs (AL): absent (0) present (1)  
Obtuse or basin-like lophs (OL): absent (0) present (1)  
Occlusion characteristics      
Structural fortification of cusps (SF): absent (0) present (1)  
Occlusal topography (OT): has raised elements (0) is flat (1)  
Material properties      
Coronal cementum (CM): absent or very thin (0) thick coating (1)  

 

TABLE 2. Number of sites from each continent containing taxa from the given order or family, after (left) and before (right) filtering out sites with fewer than three taxa.

  Eurasia Africa North America South America
Total no. of sites 12497 21586 8235 12029 2544 9636 5610 7113
Artiodactyla 12467 20269 8131 11637 2544 8599 5610 6292
Antilocapridae 0 0 0 0 699 809 0 0
Bovidae 6278 9037 8125 11545 726 1465 0 0
Camelidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 52 301
Cervidae 10903 15566 45 76 2544 8358 5582 6138
Giraffidae 0 0 957 957 0 0 0 0
Hippopotamidae 0 0 772 772 0 0 0 0
Moschidae 3980 4129 0 0 0 0 0 0
Suidae 8692 11215 6222 6356 0 0 0 0
Tayassuidae 0 0 0 0 545 862 5527 5642
Tragulidae 983 985 997 997 0 0 0 0
Perissodactyla 876 888 2855 2855 297 297 5277 5293
Equidae 837 849 990 990 0 0 0 0
Rhinocerotidae 5 5 2800 2800 0 0 0 0
Tapiridae 35 35 0 0 297 297 5277 5293
Primates 4146 4555 7704 8002 356 356 5320 5349
Aotidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 622 622
Atelidae 0 0 0 0 350 350 273 273
Callitrichidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 2638 2638
Cebidae 0 0 0 0 243 243 5311 5340
Cercopithecidae 4146 4552 7582 7841 0 0 0 0
Cheirogaleidae 0 0 88 109 0 0 0 0
Daubentoniidae 0 0 49 51 0 0 0 0
Galagidae 0 0 5810 5823 0 0 0 0
Hominidae 53 53 1193 1193 0 0 0 0
Hylobatidae 841 841 0 0 0 0 0 0
Indridae 0 0 64 70 0 0 0 0
Lemuridae 0 0 77 95 0 0 0 0
Lepilemuridae 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lorisidae 1186 1196 1585 1585 0 0 0 0
Megaladapidae 0 0 32 35 0 0 0 0
Pitheciidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1548 1548
Tarsiidae 393 407 0 0 0 0 0 0
Proboscidea 245 245 2559 2559 0 0 0 0
Elephantidae 245 245 2559 2559 0 0 0 0

 

TABLE 3. List of the dental traits and bioclimatic variables. Temperature and precipitation are measured respectively in degrees Celsius (°C) and in millimeters (mm).

Dental trait variables
Hyp1 Fraction of brachydont taxa (Hypsodonty)
Hyp2 Fraction of mesodont taxa (Hypsodonty)
Hyp3 Fraction of hypsodont taxa (Hypsodonty)
Hod1 Fraction of brachyhorizodont taxa (Horizodonty)
Hod2 Fraction of mesohorizodont taxa (Horizodonty)
Hod3 Fraction of hypsohorizodont taxa (Horizodonty)
AL Fraction of taxa with acute lophs
OL Fraction of taxa with obtuse lophs
SF Fraction of taxa with structural fortification of cups
OT Fraction of taxa with flat occlusal topography
CM Fraction of taxa with coronal cementum
Bioclimatic variables
T~Y Mean Annual Temperature
T~RngD Mean Diurnal Range
TIso Isothermality
TSeason Temperature Seasonality
T+WarmM Max Temperature of Warmest Month
T-ColdM Min Temperature of Coldest Month
TRngY Annual Temperature Range
T~WetQ Mean Temperature of Wettest Quarter
T~DryQ Mean Temperature of Driest Quarter
T~WarmQ Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter
T~ColdQ Mean Temperature of Coldest Quarter
PTotY Annual Precipitation
PWetM Precipitation of Wettest Month
PDryM Precipitation of Driest Month
PSeason Precipitation Seasonality
PWetQ Precipitation of Wettest Quarter
PDryQ Precipitation of Driest Quarter
PWarmQ Precipitation of Warmest Quarter
PColdQ Precipitation of Coldest Quarter

 

TABLE 4. Extending a redescription: an example in four steps.

qD qC J |supp|
[1≤ OL ≤1] [T-ColdM ≤-10.3] 0.55 4825
[1≤ OL ≤1] OR [0.4≤ SF ≤0.4] [T-ColdM ≤-10.3] 0.6 5615
([1≤ OL ≤1] OR [0.4≤ SF ≤0.4]) AND [AL ≤0] [T-ColdM ≤-10.3] 0.61 5615
([1≤ OL ≤1] OR [0.4≤ SF ≤0.4]) AND [AL ≤0] [T-ColdM ≤-10.3] AND [0.1≤ T~WarmQ ≤21.6] 0.62 5472

 

TABLE 5. Ten redescriptions with highest accuracy among 379 obtained. For each redescription, we list its queries, that is, the query over dental traits variables (qD) and the query over bioclimatic variables (qC). We also indicate the accuracy of the redescription (J) as well as the size of its support, as the number of sites described (|supp|) and as a percentage of the total number of sites (supp%).

R1     J = 0.68 |supp| = 6517 supp% = 22.56
  qD = [Hyp2 ≤0.333] AND [1≤ Hod1] AND [AL ≤0.056] AND [0.75≤ OL]
  qC = [T~WarmQ ≤18.3] AND [T~ColdQ ≤6]
R2     J = 0.67 |supp| = 6694 supp% = 23.17
  qD = ( ( [0.846≤ Hyp1] AND [OL ≤0.4] ) OR [0.033≤ OT ≤0.138] ) AND [Hyp3 ≤0.348]
  qC = [67≤ TIso] AND [17.7≤ T+WarmM ≤35.8]
R3     J = 0.65 |supp| = 6291 supp% = 21.78
  qD = [Hyp2 ≤0.333] AND [1≤ Hod1] AND [AL ≤0.048] AND [0.75≤ OL]
  qC = [T+WarmM ≤25.7] AND [T~ColdQ ≤6.1]
R4     J = 0.63 |supp| = 5470 supp% = 18.94
  qD =( [1≤ OL ≤1] OR [0.4≤ SF ≤0.4] ) AND [Hyp2 ≤0.333] AND [AL ≤0]
  qC =[T-ColdM ≤-10.3] AND [0.1≤ T~WarmQ ≤21.6]
R5     J = 0.63 |supp| = 6374 supp% = 22.07
  qD =( ( [Hyp3 ≤0.458] AND [0.061≤ AL ≤0.235] ) OR [0.032≤ Hod3 ≤0.059] ) AND [OL ≤0.643]
  qC =[68≤ TIso ≤91] AND [613≤ PTotY ≤6989]
R6     J = 0.62 |supp| = 4821 supp% = 16.69
  qD =( [1≤ Hyp1 ≤1] AND [0.091≤ SF ≤0.286] ) OR [0.033≤ Hyp3 ≤0.12] OR [0.182≤ AL ≤0.188]
  qC =[53≤ TIso ≤91] AND [1475≤ PTotY ≤3670]
R7     J = 0.61 |supp| = 3476 supp% = 12.03
  qD =( [1≤ Hyp1 ≤1] AND [0.059≤ OL ≤0.333] AND [0.091≤ SF ≤0.25] ) OR [0.062≤ Hyp2 ≤0.083]
  qC =[65≤ TIso ≤91] AND [692≤ PWetQ ≤1511]
R8     J = 0.60 |supp| = 4971 supp% = 17.21
  qD =( ( [1≤ Hyp1 ≤1] AND [OL ≤0.333] ) OR [0.033≤ OT ≤0.107] ) AND [0.032≤ AL ≤0.188]
  qC =[23.1≤ TSeason ≤116.6] AND [289≤ PWetQ ≤2256]
R9     J = 0.60 |supp| = 4666 supp% = 16.15
  qD =( ( [0.933≤ Hyp1] AND [0.059≤ OL ≤0.364] ) OR [0.033≤ OT ≤0.107] ) AND [0.032≤ AL ≤0.188]
  qC =[69≤ TIso ≤87] AND [410≤ PWetQ ≤1940]
R10     J = 0.60 |supp| = 5993 supp% = 20.75
  qD =( ( [0.759≤ OL] AND [CM ≤0] ) OR [0.5≤ SF ≤0.667] ) AND [0.25≤ Hyp1]
  qC =[TIso ≤31] AND [T~ColdQ ≤2.2]

 

TABLE 6. Redescriptions R1 and variants with alternative dental traits queries. R1a is obtained by manually removing Hyp2. The remaining variants are obtained by deleting the entire query, then letting the algorithm find a new one, with some variables deactivated. First, we deactivated variables Hod1, Hod2, Hod3 and AL, obtaining R1b. Further deactivating Hyp2, we obtained R1c and R1d. Fields are the same as in Table 5.

R1     J = 0.68 |supp| = 6517 supp% = 22.56
  qD =[Hyp2 ≤0.333] AND [1≤ Hod1] AND [AL ≤0.056] AND [0.75≤ OL]
  qC =[T~WarmQ ≤18.3] AND [T~ColdQ ≤6]
R1a     J = 0.67 |supp| = 6518 supp% = 22.56
  qD =[1≤ Hod1] AND [AL ≤0.056] AND [0.75≤ OL]
  qC =[T~WarmQ ≤18.3] AND [T~ColdQ ≤6]
R1b     J = 0.61 |supp| = 6532 supp% = 22.61
  qD =[Hyp2 ≤0.333] AND [0.75≤ OL]
  qC =[T~WarmQ ≤18.3] AND [T~ColdQ ≤6]
R1c     J = 0.65 |supp| = 6286 supp% = 21.76
  qD =( [0.75≤ OL] AND [CM ≤0] ) OR [0.8≤ Hyp3]
  qC =[T~WarmQ ≤18.3] AND [T~ColdQ ≤6]
R1d     J = 0.66 |supp| = 6158 supp% = 21.32
  qD =( [0.273≤ Hyp1] AND [0.75≤ OL] AND [CM ≤0] ) OR [0.8≤ Hyp3]
  qC =[T~WarmQ ≤18.3] AND [T~ColdQ ≤6]

 

TABLE 7. Redescriptions R2 and R5 and variants with alternative dental traits queries. R2a and R2b are obtained by splitting the dental traits queries of R2 into two components. Similarly, R5a and R5b are obtained by splitting dental traits queries of R5 into two components. Fields are the same as in Table 5.

R2     J = 0.67 |supp| = 6694 supp% = 23.17
  qD =( ( [0.846≤ Hyp1] AND [OL ≤0.4] ) OR [0.033≤ OT ≤0.138] ) AND [Hyp3 ≤0.348]
  qC =[67≤ TIso] AND [17.7≤ T+WarmM ≤35.8]
R2a     J = 0.52 |supp| = 4979 supp% = 17.24
  qD =[0.846≤ Hyp1] AND [OL ≤0.4]
  qC =[67≤ TIso] AND [17.7≤ T+WarmM ≤35.8]
R2b     J = 0.20 |supp| = 1758 supp% = 6.09
  qD =[0.033≤ OT ≤0.138] AND [Hyp3 ≤0.348]
  qC =[67≤ TIso] AND [17.7≤ T+WarmM ≤35.8]
R5     J = 0.63 |supp| = 6374 supp% = 22.07
  qD =( ( [Hyp3 ≤0.458] AND [0.061≤ AL ≤0.235] ) OR [0.032≤ Hod3 ≤0.059] ) AND [OL ≤0.643]
  qC =[68≤ TIso ≤91] AND [613≤ PTotY ≤6989]
R5a     J = 0.57 |supp| = 5604 supp% = 19.40
  qD =[0.061≤ AL ≤0.235] AND [OL ≤0.643]
  q C =[68≤ TIso ≤91] AND [613≤ PTotY ≤6989]
R5b     J = 0.14 |supp| = 1077 supp% = 3.73
  qD =[0.032≤ Hod3 ≤0.059] AND [OL ≤0.643]
  qC =[68≤ TIso ≤91] AND [613≤ PTotY ≤6989]

 

TABLE 8. Three redescriptions, R43, R69 and R74, featuring high values of PSeason with highest accuracy among 379 obtained and variants with alternative dental traits queries. R43a and R43b are obtained from R43 by removing first Hod1, then OL. R69a and R69b are obtained by splitting the dental traits queries of R69 into two components. Fields are the same as in Table 5.

R43     J = 0.52 |supp| = 3141 supp% = 10.87
  qD =( [Hyp1 ≤0.429] AND [0.042≤ Hod3 ≤0.222] ) OR [0.96≤ Hod1 ≤0.96] OR [0.167≤ OL ≤0.167]
  qC =[54≤ TIso ≤88] AND [84≤ PSeason ≤136]
R43a     J = 0.51 |supp| = 3101 supp% = 10.74
  qD =( [Hyp1 ≤0.429] AND [0.042≤ Hod3 ≤0.222] ) OR [0.167≤ OL ≤0.167]
  qC =[54≤ TIso ≤88] AND [84≤ PSeason ≤136]
R43b     J = 0.50 |supp| = 2864 supp% = 9.91
  qD =[Hyp1 ≤0.429] AND [0.042≤ Hod3 ≤0.222]
  qC =[54≤ TIso ≤88] AND [84≤ PSeason ≤136]
R69     J = 0.48 |supp| = 5073 supp% = 17.56
  qD =( [0.346≤ Hyp3] AND [AL ≤0.095] ) OR [0.444≤ Hyp2] OR [0.429≤ SF ≤0.455]
  qC =[13.8≤ TRngY ≤50.3] AND [91≤ PSeason ≤164]
R69a     J = 0.45 |supp| = 4640 supp% = 16.06
  qD =[0.346≤ Hyp3] AND [AL ≤0.095]
  qC =[13.8≤ TRngY ≤50.3] AND [91≤ PSeason ≤164]
R69b     J = 0.03 |supp| = 197 supp% = 0.68
  qD =[0.429≤SF≤0.455]
  qC =[13.8≤ TRngY ≤50.3] AND [91≤ PSeason ≤164]
R74     J = 0.47 |supp| = 5070 supp% = 17.55
  qD =( [Hyp1 ≤0.4] OR [0.111≤ Hyp2 ≤0.125] OR [0.273≤ Hyp3 ≤0.308] ) AND [AL ≤0.095]
  qC =[75.1≤ TSeason ≤1352] AND [90≤ PSeason ≤147]

 

TABLE 9. Climate classes defined by the Köppen system (Kottek et al., 2006). Pth is a dryness threshold.

Class Description Climate criterion
A Equatorial climates Tmin ≤18°C
Af Equatorial rainforest, fully humid Pmin ≥60 mm
Am Equatorial monsoon Pann ≥25(100 - P min )
As Equatorial savanna with dry summer Pmin ≤60 mm in summer
Aw Equatorial savanna with dry winter Pmin ≤60 mm in winter
B Arid climates Pann <10 Pth
BS Steppe climate Pann >5 Pth
BW Desert climate Pann ≤5 Pth
C Warm temperate climates -3°C < T min < +18°C
Cs Warm temperate climate with dry summer Psmin < Pwmin, Pwmax > 3 Psmin and Psmin < 40 mm
Cw Warm temperate climate with dry winter Pwmin < Psmin and Psmax > 10 P wmin
Cf Warm temperate climate, fully humid neither Cs nor Cw
D Snow climates Tmin ≤-3°C
Ds Snow climate with dry summer Psmin < Pwmin, Pwmax > 3 Psmin and Psmin < 40 mm
Dw Snow climate with dry winter Pwmin < Psmin and  smax > 10 Pwmin
Df Snow climate, fully humid neither Ds nor Dw
E Polar climates Tmax < + 10°C
ET Tundra climate 0°C ≤Tmax < +10°C
EF Frost climate Tmax < 0°C