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FIGURE 1. Schematic map of the Mediterranean with the island of Crete indicated with an oblong and showing the fossil sites with antler remains of the endemic deer dwarf Candiacervus mentioned in this study. 1 = Melidoni, 2 = Liko, 3 = Peristeri 2, 4 = Kaló Chorafi, 5 = Sifanos, 6 = Kharoum(b)es, 7 = Gerani 2, 8 = Gerani 4, 9 = Gerani 5, 10 = Sourida, 11 = Bate Cave, 12 = Mavro Muri 3 and 4, 13 = Simonelli Cave, 14 = Gumbes, 15 = Grida Avlaki, 16 = Panajia 2. Not indicated here are Rethymnon fissure (just west of Rethymnon) and Gerani 1 and 6 (near Gerani 5).


FIGURE 2. Composite mount of an adult stag of a dwarf form (withers height c. 50 cm) with of Candiacervus with typical ropalophorus-type of antler. Scale bar equals 30 cm.


FIGURE 3. Three antlers of Candiacervus ropalophorus. 1, Cast of the type antler (RGM 438460). 2, Curved variety, right shed antler (AMPG[V] 560). 3, Curved variety with clear bludgeon-shaped distal end (AMPG[V] 2133).


FIGURE 4. 3D scan of the type antler (RGM 438460) of C. ropalophorus.


FIGURE 5. 3D scan of the curved antler variety (AMPG[V] 560) of C. ropalophorus.


FIGURE 6. Candiaverus devosi sp. nov. 1, Holotype AMPG(V) 1735, skull with preserved proximal left antler, latero-frontal view. 2, Paratype AMPG(V) 1733, right shed antler. 3, Artificial combination of the holotype and paratype to visually reconstruct the original configuration.


FIGURE 7. 3D scan of the paratype of C. devosi sp. nov.


FIGURE 8. Candiacervus listeri sp. nov. 1, Holotype AMPG(V) 1734, skull with preserved proximal antlers, lateral view. 2, Paratype AMPG(V) 1726, partial skull with attached left and right antlers missing the distal tips, dorso-frontal view. 3, Referred right shed antler AMPG(V) 2106 (Kalo Chorafi?), showing the posterior rudimentary palmation. 4, Referred left shed antler AMPG(V) 2115 (Rethymnon area) with rudimentary back tine.


FIGURE 9. 3D scan of the right antler of the paratype of C. listeri sp. nov. (AMPG[V] 1726).


FIGURE 10. 3D scan of a right shed antler of C. listeri sp. nov. (AMPG[V] Li-2593), type antler of de Vos' (1984) type 2.


FIGURE 11. 3D scan of referred antler of C. listeri with rudimentary posterior palmation (AMPG[V] 2106).


FIGURE 12. Candiacervus reumeri sp. nov. 1, Holotype AMPG(V) 1736, skull with attached proximal antlers, lateral view. 2, Paratype RGM 442702, Left shed antler. 3, Referred right shed antler AMPG(V) 562 (Liko OD), showing a rudimentary second tine. 4, Referred right shed antler AMPG(V) 2105 (Peristeri 2).


FIGURE 13. 3D scan of referred right shed antler of C. reumeri sp. nov. (AMPG[V] 562).


FIGURE 14. Candiacervus cf. reumeri. 1, Referred left shed antler AMPG(V) 561 (Liko OD), showing the rudimentary sub-basal tine. 2, Referred right shed antler AMPG(V) 2138 (Kalo Chorafi).


FIGURE 15. Schematic representation of the evolution of two main types of antlers of Candiacervus. Several antler types can be distinguished, but these can be interpreted as evolutionary derivations (stages) of two basic bauplans. These derivations likely represent contemporaneous, geographically separated species or ecomorphs. The connecting lines only show the order of changes needed to evolve another antler morphology. The evolution as presented here is merely an illustration of how the various antler shapes of Candiacervus may have evolved, simply by adding and reduction of tines and lengthening of the last segment. 1, C. devosi stage; 2, C. listeri stage; 3, C. ropalophorus stage; 4, C. reumeri stage.




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