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TABLE 1. Top five living fossils according to pEPI and their associated statistics for Amphibia, Arthropoda, Aves, Embryophyta, Lepidosauria, Mammalia, Metazoa, Vertebrata and Actinopteria. “-” indicates no data is available.

Common name Scientific name Change Success Time ED EPI pEPI %
Amphibians Amphibia - 3.24E-01 351.80 - - -6.99 20%-21%
Tailed frog Ascaphus - 3.47E-04 183.50 - - -13.18 0%-1%
New Zealand primitive frogs Leiopelma - 6.95E-04 183.50 - - -12.48 0%-1%
Gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus silus - 1.49E-03 123.90 - - -11.33 1%-2%
Fire-bellied toads Bombinatoridae - 1.91E-03 156.90 - - -11.32 1%-2%
The Seychelles frogs Sooglossoidea - 1.80E-03 135.30 - - -11.23 1%-2%
Arthropods Arthropoda - 4.10E+02 680.50 - - -0.51 98%-99%
Kauri moth Agathiphaga queenslandensis - 2.64E-05 224.00 - - -15.95 0%-1%
Southern beech moth Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania - 2.64E-05 224.00 - - -15.95 0%-1%
- Andesiana lamellata - 2.70E-05 194.00 - - -15.79 0%-1%
Archaic bell moths Neopseustidae - 5.29E-05 194.00 - - -15.12 0%-1%
- Prionodiaptomus - 2.18E-04 507.35 - - -14.66 0%-1%
Birds Aves - 3.41E+02 236.50 - - 0.37 99%-100%
Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin 0.74 1.13E-04 72.45 72.69 -4.56 -13.37 0%-1%
New Zealand wrens Acanthisittidae 0.80 3.72E-04 73.10 41.68 -4.55 -12.19 0%-1%
Hoopoes, wood-hoopoes, scimitarbills Upupiformes 0.96 3.41E-04 59.58 20.68 -4.13 -12.07 0%-1%
Grey hypocolius Hypocolius ampelinus - 1.86E-04 29.02 32.41 - -11.96 0%-1%
Mousebirds Coliidae 0.83 6.81E-04 81.59 38.97 -4.54 -11.69 0%-1%
Land Plants Embryophyta - 1.99E+02 919.80 - - -1.53 94%-95%
Coontails or hornworts Ceratophyllum - 7.91E-05 139.00 - - -14.38 0%-1%
- Berberidopsidales - 1.19E-04 113.70 - - -13.77 0%-1%
- Andreaeobryum macrosporum - 3.11E-04 220.00 - - -13.47 0%-1%
Griffith's oedipodium moss Oedipodium griffithianum - 3.24E-04 214.10 - - -13.40 0%-1%
Soap bark tree Quillaja saponaria - 1.13E-04 65.40 - - -13.27 0%-1%
Lepidosaurs Lepidosauria - 7.06E-01 279.70 - - -5.98 30%-31%
Tuatara Sphenodon - 3.06E-04 251.80 - - -13.62 0%-1%
Cat gecko Aeluroscalabotes felinus - 1.19E-03 116.00 - - -11.49 0%-1%
- Dibamidae - 2.15E-03 201.00 - - -11.45 0%-1%
- Altiphylax - 2.37E-03 110.67 - - -10.75 1%-2%
- Microgecko - 2.37E-03 108.00 - - -10.73 1%-2%
Mammals Mammalia - 3.54E-01 311.90 - - -6.78 22%-23%
Egg-laying mammals Monotremata 0.97 5.37E-04 166.20 80.13 -5.15 -12.64 0%-1%
Mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa - 5.34E-04 58.70 58.82 - -11.61 0%-1%
Springhare Pedetes capensis 0.85 5.34E-04 56.90 59.83 -4.20 -11.58 0%-1%
Flying lemurs Cynocephalidae - 1.10E-03 91.30 52.18 - -11.33 1%-2%
Beavers Castor 0.91 1.07E-03 71.60 41.88 -4.37 -11.11 1%-2%
Multicelled animals Metazoa - 3.39E+00 998.10 - - -5.68 34%-35%
- Limnognathia maerski - 5.77E-05 662.00 - - -16.26 0%-1%
Placozoans Trichoplax - 8.74E-05 951.80 - - -16.20 0%-1%
Mesozoans Mesozoa - 1.10E-04 951.80 - - -15.97 0%-1%
Jaw worms Gnathostomulida - 1.36E-04 745.60 - - -15.51 0%-1%
Comb jellies Ctenophora - 2.18E-04 824.00 - - -15.15 0%-1%
Vertebrates Vertebrata - 1.27E+02 680.20 - - -1.68 93%-94%
Coelacanth Latimeria - 7.06E-05 413.00 - - -15.58 0%-1%
Lungfishes Ceratodontimorpha - 4.23E-04 413.00 - - -13.79 0%-1%
Bichirs Polypteridae - 7.66E-04 386.30 - - -13.13 0%-1%
Jawless vertebrates Cyclostomata - 2.20E-03 615.00 - - -12.54 0%-1%
Crocodiles Crocodylia - 2.93E-03 236.50 - - -11.30 1%-2%
Actinopterians Actinopteria - 2.32E+03 314.70 - - 2.00 99%-100%
Salamanderfish Lepidogalaxias salamandroides - 8.32E-05 209.40 - - -14.74 0%-1%
- Holostei - 4.32E-04 314.70 - - -13.50 0%-1%
Beardfish Polymixia - 5.31E-04 148.00 - - -12.54 0%-1%
Convict/engineer blenny/goby Pholidichthys leucotaenia - 4.49E-04 93.00 - - -12.24 0%-1%
Jellynose fish Ateleopodidae - 8.33E-04 166.90 - - -12.21 0%-1%

 

TABLE 2. Top living fossils according to EPI and their associated statistics for birds (B) and mammals (M) for which the change variable could be calculated.

Common name Scientific name B/M Change Success Time ED EPI pEPI
Egg-laying mammals Monotremata M 0.97 5.37E-04 166.20 80.13 -5.15 -12.64
Marsupials Metatheria M 1.00 6.68E-02 147.70 18.28 -4.93 -7.70
Ratites and Tinamous Palaeognathae B 1.01 6.24E-03 116.75 25.58 -4.74 -9.84
Anteaters, sloths and armadillos Xenarthra M 0.99 6.92E-03 101.10 25.48 -4.62 -9.59
Afrotherians Afrotheria M 0.98 2.08E-02 101.30 30.44 -4.62 -8.49
Fowl Galloanserae B 0.97 5.52E-02 103.54 7.23 -4.61 -7.54
Aardvark Orycteropus afer M 0.92 9.43E-03 93.20 93.34 -4.61 -9.20
Odd-toed ungulates Perissodactyla M 0.86 1.20E-02 87.30 29.38 -4.61 -8.89
Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin B 0.76 1.13E-04 72.45 72.69 -4.56 -13.37
New Zealand wrens Acanthisittidae B 0.77 3.72E-04 73.10 41.68 -4.55 -12.19
Trogons Trogonidae B 0.82 4.45E-03 77.23 12.35 -4.54 -9.76
Oilbird Steatornis caripensis B 0.83 1.10E-02 79.12 79.17 -4.54 -8.88
Mouse birds Coliidae B 0.87 6.81E-04 81.59 38.97 -4.54 -11.69
Pangolins Manis M 0.91 6.40E-03 84.90 25.73 -4.53 -9.49
Seriemas Cariamidae B 0.89 1.26E-02 82.20 48.49 -4.51 -8.78
Solenodons Solenodon M 0.94 4.72E-03 84.20 62.54 -4.49 -9.79
Rabbits and hares Lagomorpha M 0.98 4.64E-02 91.80 12.99 -4.49 -7.59
Dormice Gliridae M 0.85 9.16E-03 76.30 24.13 -4.49 -9.03
Tree shrews Tupaiidae M 1.05 9.95E-03 94.30 28.62 -4.49 -9.16
Divers/Loons Gavia B 0.75 5.68E-04 64.98 30.23 -4.46 -11.65
Shorebirds Charadriiformes B 0.97 3.56E-02 85.18 12.14 -4.44 -7.78
Mesites Mesitornithidae B 0.93 1.26E-02 77.54 36.09 -4.41 -8.73
Owls Strigiformes B 0.97 1.78E-02 80.44 10.57 -4.40 -8.42
Falcons and caracaras Falconiformes B 0.96 3.33E-02 80.68 11.15 -4.40 -7.79
Parrots Psittaciformes B 0.96 4.00E-02 80.48 8.76 -4.39 -7.61

 

TABLE 3. Number of species counted from NCBI taxonomy and number of expected for each taxonomic grouping. Metazoan estimate is based on the sum of descendent clades.

Group Spp. Count Expected Count   % Reference
Amphibia 6,936 7,571   92 (AmphibiaWeb, 2016)
Arthropoda 166,900 7,500,000 * 2 (Ødegaard, 2000)
Aves 8,867 10,050   88 (Gill and Wright, 2006)
Embryophyta 131,987 350,669   38 (The Plant List, 2006)
Lepidosauria 6,539 9,000 * 73 (Uetz, 2010)
Mammalia 5,593 5,416   103 (Wilson and Reeder, 2005)
Metazoa 265,332 7,980,706   3 -
Vertebrata 50,498 64,000   79 (Baillie et al. 2004)
Actinopetrians 20,847 34,000 * 61 (Froese and Pauly, 2017)
Mean % 60  
*Author estimates based on description

 

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