TABLE 1. Individual species coefficients of variation, and coefficients of variation in genus-level mixtures (Muntiacus, Camelus, Mix 1: Cephalophus and Philantomba, Mix 2: Mid-sized Cephalophus species, Mix3: Lama and Vicugna). ‘n’ indicates sample size for measurement.

Measurement bact dors drom hylo lama leuc mont munt nigi ovis reev silv vicu weyn Camelus Cephalophus/ Philantomba Medium Cephalophus Vicugna/ Lama Muntiacus
L C1 26.2 n=12   39.6 n=21 26.6 n=19 28.5 n=13     28.1 n=6     43.5 n=7   26.4 n=11   37.9 n=33     31.3 n=24 34.2 n=13
L I3         25.6 n=13               28
n=11
        28.7 n=24  
L P2 33 n=15 7.6 n=13 28.3 n=19 32.9 n=3   8.5 n=22 5.5 n=15 11.6 n=12 5.5 n=16 15.7 n=12 4.7 n=7 8.5
n=9
  6
n=11
32 n=34 26.3 n=86 9.4
n=62
  13.2 n=19
L P3 9
n=13
10.9 n=17 13.1 n=21 15.5 n=13 26.2 n=11 8.9 n=22 8.5 n=16 11.4 n=11 6.6 n=16 9.1 n=14 4 n=7 8.5 n=9 20.9 n=7 10.2 n=12 11.9 n=34 25.4 n=92 10.1 n=67 30.2 n=18 12.9 n=18
L P4 7.5 n=13 7.3 n=16 9.3 n=21 14.5 n=11 9.3 n=13 8.5 n=21 8.1 n=16 16.8 n=12 8.1 n=16 9.3 n=13 8.6 n=7 8.6 n=9 10.6 n=10 6.8 n=12 8.7 n=34 24.5 n=90 8.9 n=65 16.9 n=23 18 n=19
L M1 18.1 n=15 11.7 n=17 17 n=23 10.8 n=19 11.7 n=14 10.4 n=25 9.9 n=20 12.5 n=15 11 n=17 12.2 n=20 10.9 n=10 11.7 n=9 18.2 n=19 13.1 n=13 18.7 n=38 25.6 n=101 11.8 n=72 17.1 n=33 14.1 n=25
L M2 13.9 n=14 10.2 n=17 14 n=21 11.9 n=19 14.4 n=14 7.4 n=25 8 n=19 14.4 n=15 8.5 n=17 8.8 n=19 8 n=8 9.5 n=9 14.2 n=15 10.4 n=13 14.6 n=35 24.7 n=100 9.5 n=72 17.1 n=29 14.5 n=23
L M3 8.3 n=12 8.9 n=17 6.3 n=20 4.8 n=12 11.9 n=13 5.5 n=25 7.4 n=16 10.7 n=13 7.5 n=17 7.9 n=14 5.4 n=7 9.1 n=9 4.8 n=10 6.5 n=13 8 n=32 25 n=97 8.1 n=72 16.2 n=23 12.9 n=20
W C1 37.1 n=11   41.8 n=21 34.7 n=12 35.6 n=13     19.4 n=6     49.3 n=7   23.1 n=11   45.9 n=32     37.7 n=24 34.8 n=13
W I3         29.6 n=13               25.3 n=11         34 n=24  
W P2 25.6 n=13 9.4 n=13 28.4 n=18 23.6 n=2   9 n=22 11.2 n=15 14.8 n=12 8.4 n=16 8.6 n=12 7 n=7 6.9 n=9   10.5 n=11 32.3 n=31 28.5 n=86 9.8 n=62   15.3 n=19
W P3 9.5 n=13 7.9 n=17 11.2 n=21 18.8 n=13 20.9 n=11 9.4 n=22 11.4 n=16 9.7 n=11 7.3 n=16 8.9 n=14 6.2 n=7 4.8 n=9 14.7 n=7 6.8 n=12 10.7 n=34 30.3 n=92 10.2 n=67 20.2 n=18 11.9 n=18
W P4 12.5 n=13 6.6 n=16 7.2 n=21 16.9 n=11 19 n=13 5.3 n=21 9.2 n=16 9.8 n=12 6.9 n=16 5.8 n=13 4.7 n=7 6.4 n=9 16.1 n=10 7 n=12 9.9 n=34 27.6 n=90 6.8 n=65 24.8 n=23 12.5 n=19
W M1 13.1 n=15 9 n=17 8 n=23 14 n=19 11.9 n=14 5.5 n=25 8.2 n=20 10.3 n=15 6.4 n=17 7.3 n=20 10.4 n=10 6.5 n=9 9.9 n=19 6 n=13 10.1 n=38 25.9 n=101 7.7 n=72 18 n=33 14.2 n=25
W M2 14.1 n=14 6.8 n=17 6.3 n=21 13.7 n=19 10.4 n=14 5 n=25 6.6 n=19 9.9 n=15 7 n=17 8 n=19 7.3 n=8 8.6 n=9 14.8 n=14 6.1 n=13 9.9 n=35 25.4 n=100 7.4 n=72 20.1 n=28 12.4 n=23
W M3 18.1 n=12 6.3 n=17 8.3 n=20 13.1 n=12 9.6 n=13 6.4 n=25 6.2 n=16 11.3 n=13 8 n=17 6.5 n=14 4.8 n=7 7.6 n=9 10.6 n=10 6.6 n=13 13.6 n=32 24.2 n=97 8.1 n=72 17.1 n=23 12 n=20
Premolars 6.3 n=13 6.8 n=15 8.1 n=21 27.9 n=14 13.7 n=12 7.4 n=22 6 n=16 12 n=11 5.3 n=16 11.8 n=14 14.6 n=7 7.6 n=9 15 n=10 3.4 n=11 7.4 n=34 25.7 n=89 7.8 n=64 21 n=22 14.7 n=18
Molars 13.8 n=12 6.8 n=17 7.8 n=20 11 n=12 10 n=13 5.5 n=25 5.2 n=16 10.4 n=12 5.7 n=17 5.5 n=14 5.6 n=7 5.6 n=9 10 n=10 6.1 n=13 11.1 n=32 23.7 n=97 6.6 n=72 16.3 n=23 12.8 n=19
Toothrow 7.9 n=12 5.2 n=15 5.9 n=20 7.6 n=13 11.2 n=13 5.5 n=22 4.9 n=16 9.7 n=11 3.9 n=16 6.1 n=14 5 n=7 5.4 n=9 12.7 n=10 3.1 n=12 7.3 n=32 24.8 n=90 5.3 n=65 17.1 n=23 13.1 n=18

 

TABLE 2. Results for Discriminant Function Analyses. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis with Lengths (QDA L) and Widths (QDA W). Family summaries provided at the bottom.

  LDA QDA Length QDA Width
Camelus bactrianus 0.42 0.5 0.08
Camelus dromedarius 0.8 0.8 0.6
Lama guanicoe 0.91 0.91 1
Vicugna vicugna 0.71 0.29 0.29
Muntiacus muntjak 0.8 0.9 0.8
Muntiacus reevesi 0.86 0.57 0.14
Cephalophus dorsalis 0.85 0.54 0.38
Cephalophus leucogaster 0.76 0.67 0.67
Cephalophus nigifirons 0.4 0.33 0.27
Cephalophus silvicultor 1 1 0.78
Cephalophus weynsi 0.4 0.1 0.1
Philantomba monticola 1 1 1
Overall Camelidae 0.72 0.52 0.68
Overall Cephalophinae 0.73 0.61 0.55
Overall Muntiacus 0.82 0.76 0.53

 

TABLE 3. t values for comparisons between two species mixtures (Cephalophus and Miniochoerus) and multiple single-species CVs. Significance is marked as follows: p<.05 *, p<.01 **, p<.001***.

Mixed Sample Measurement dors leuc nigi weyn dico taya
Combined Cephalophus H.M1 0.68 0.58 0.3 0.46    
Combined Cephalophus L.M1 0.03 0.33 0.16 0.2    
Combined Cephalophus L.M2 0.16 0.69 0.25 0.19    
Combined Cephalophus L.M3 0.2 1.21 0.19 0.51 0.31 0.3
Combined Cephalophus L.P2 0.51 0.27 1.52 1.11    
Combined Cephalophus L.P3 0.18 0.33 1.17 0.02    
Combined Cephalophus L.P4 0.52 0.13 0.23 0.65    
Combined Cephalophus Molars 0.08 0.51 0.34 0.18 0.33 0.47
Combined Cephalophus Premolars 0.31 0.11 0.99 2.4 ** 0.33 0.34
Combined Cephalophus Toothrow 0.04 0.1 0.81 1.45 0.44 0.44
Combined Cephalophus W.M1 0.33 0.99 0.48 0.61    
Combined Cephalophus W.M2 0.19 1.17 0.13 0.41    
Combined Cephalophus W.M3 0.65 0.67 0.02 0.45 0.32 0.29
Combined Cephalophus W.P2 0.1 0.23 0.39 0.12    
Combined Cephalophus W.P3 0.68 0.2 0.89 1.01    
Combined Cephalophus W.P4 0.04 0.63 0.04 0.07    
Miniochoerus affinis & gracilis L.M3 0.5 1.58 0.86 1.11 0.31 0.3
Miniochoerus affinis & gracilis Molars 0.83 1.37 1.21 1.04 0.33 0.46
Miniochoerus affinis & gracilis Premolars 0.62 0.47 1.15 1.96 * 0.33 0.34
Miniochoerus affinis & gracilis Toothrow 1.22 1.16 1.82 * 2.18 * 0.44 0.44
Miniochoerus affinis & gracilis W.M3 1.3 1.32 0.81 1.15 0.31 0.29

 

TABLE 4. Regressions of M1H on tooth measurements (M1 L, M1 W, M2 L, M2 W, M3 L and M3 W). Significant p values are filled in grey. Adjusted R2 values, slope, slope significance, standard error, intercept, and intercept significance are reported for each measurement.

    bact drom guan vicu hylo dors leuco dilv nigi weyn phil munt reev ovis
M1 L adjR2 0.31 0.29 0.22 0.19 0.18 0.64 0.54 0.96 0.85 0.66 0.55 0.74 0.15 -0.07
Slope 0.62 0.47 0.40 0.40 0.48 0.78 0.62 1.03 0.61 0.52 0.76 0.80 0.31 0.02
pSlope 0.02 <.01 0.05 0.06 0.04 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 0.17 0.89
StEr 0.23 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.16 0.13 0.20 0.17
Intercept 2.19 2.17 1.41 1.15 1.39 0.54 0.61 0.61 0.67 0.72 0.38 0.70 0.75 1.54
pIntercept <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01
M2 L adjR2 0.10 0.67 0.51 0.39 0.14 0.54 0.36 0.53 0.61 0.58 0.17 0.50 0.11 0.15
Slope 0.36 0.66 0.79 0.54 0.70 0.77 0.47 0.78 0.51 0.49 0.47 0.85 0.30 0.22
pSlope 0.15 <.01 <.01 0.01 0.07 <.01 <.01 0.02 <.01 <.01 0.05 <.01 0.22 0.08
StEr 0.23 0.10 0.21 0.18 0.36 0.17 0.12 0.25 0.10 0.12 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.12
Intercept 3.28 2.54 1.35 1.29 1.95 0.75 0.92 1.11 0.97 0.98 0.58 0.87 0.93 1.56
pIntercept <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01
M3 L adjR2 0.34 0.01 -0.08 0.15 -0.01 0.53 0.04 0.29 0.14 -0.00 -0.03 0.20 0.05 0.01
Slope 0.41 0.10 0.08 0.18 0.30 0.67 0.16 0.65 0.25 0.11 0.19 0.46 0.36 0.14
pSlope 0.03 0.29 0.80 0.14 0.36 <.01 0.16 0.08 0.08 0.35 0.45 0.08 0.31 0.32
StEr 0.16 0.09 0.30 0.11 0.31 0.15 0.11 0.31 0.13 0.12 0.25 0.24 0.31 0.14
Intercept 3.77 4.02 2.24 1.68 4.23 0.80 1.09 1.36 1.11 1.21 0.70 1.03 0.91 1.86
pIntercept <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01
M1 W adjR2 0.02 -0.03 -0.08 -0.07 0.14 -0.06 -0.04 -0.00 -0.06 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.14 0.25
Slope 0.19 -0.05 -0.05 -0.04 0.51 0.08 0.01 -0.25 -0.02 -0.11 0.25 0.27 -0.41 0.13
pSlope 0.28 0.60 0.83 0.74 0.07 0.77 0.95 0.36 0.87 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.18 0.02
StEr 0.17 0.09 0.21 0.12 0.26 0.25 0.11 0.26 0.12 0.10 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.05
Intercept 2.57 3.07 1.73 1.33 1.23 1.19 1.11 2.02 1.17 1.26 0.62 1.18 1.18 1.03
pIntercept <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01
M2 W adjR2 -0.07 0.18 0.22 0.10 0.13 -0.07 -0.04 -0.14 0.06 0.07 0.07 -0.02 0.66 0.09
Slope 0.08 -0.15 -0.37 -0.26 0.62 0.03 -0.00 -0.01 -0.21 -0.16 0.32 0.21 -0.53 0.12
pSlope 0.70 0.03 0.05 0.16 0.08 0.89 0.99 0.98 0.17 0.19 0.15 0.41 0.01 0.14
StEr 0.20 0.06 0.17 0.17 0.33 0.22 0.12 0.41 0.15 0.12 0.21 0.25 0.14 0.08
Intercept 2.97 3.41 2.12 1.51 1.54 1.38 1.28 2.07 1.48 1.49 0.70 1.31 1.32 1.05
pIntercept <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01
M3 W adjR2 -0.10 0.30 0.66 0.47 0.00 -0.05 0.28 -0.10 0.12 0.63 -0.07 0.09 -0.12 -0.09
Slope 0.03 -0.22 -0.50 -0.42 0.42 -0.10 -0.37 -0.16 -0.27 -0.33 -0.02 0.42 -0.21 0.01
pSlope 0.94 0.01 <.01 0.02 0.34 0.60 <.01 0.64 0.09 <.01 0.94 0.18 0.58 0.92
StEr 0.31 0.07 0.10 0.14 0.41 0.19 0.12 0.33 0.15 0.07 0.21 0.29 0.35 0.07
Intercept 3.05 3.20 2.16 1.57 1.83 1.36 1.35 2.05 1.41 1.44 0.78 1.18 1.21 1.07
pIntercept <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01

 

TABLE 5. p values for different dimorphism tests in molars of Ovis dalli, including t-tests with equal variance, Hartigan's dip test, Shapiro-Wilk test for skew, and Finite Mixture analysis of more than 1 overlapping distribution. Significant p values are filled in grey. Samples without adequate sample size filled in with na.

Test L M1 L M2 L M3 W M1 W M2 W M3
T-Test 0.01 0.23 0.99 0.35 0.58 0.64
Hartigan's Dip Test 0.76 0.45 0.68 0.63 0.69 0.59
Shapiro-Wilks 0.08 0.70 na 0.32 0.23 na
Finite Mixture Model >1 0.61 0.90 0.48 0.86 1.00 0.87

 

TABLE 6. Tests for sexual dimorphism in caniniform teeth of Camelus bactrianus, Camelus dromedarius, and Hylochoerus meinertzhagheni. p values reported for Shapiro-Wilk test, Hartigan's Dip test, and for Finite Mixture Models of >1 or >2 distributions. Significant p values filled in grey.

    Shapiro-Wilks Hartigan's >1 >2
C. dromedarius L C1 0.01 0.99 0.05 0.38
W C1 0.01 0.46 0.03 0.35
L P2 0.95 0.91 0.98  
W P2 0.01 0.71 0.41  
Multivariate     0.78  
C. bactrianus L C1 0.47 0.97 0.88  
W C1   0.85 0.82  
L P2 0.11 0.47 0.16  
W P2 0.34 0.06 0.31  
Multivariate     0.07  
Hylochoerus L C1 0.40 0.45 0.76  
W C1 0.47 0.40 0.45  
C1 Height 0.01 0.89 0.40  
Multivariate     0.61  

 

TABLE 7. Regression Coefficients for Average and Standard deviations. Significant p values are italicized and highlighted in grey. Change in AIC reflects increase in model fitness from Linear to Non-Linear model, negative numbers indicate linear model is preferred. AIC likelihood reflects likelihood of that AIC change being statistically significant; <.05 is a statistically significant likelihood. Acronyms: NLS (non-linear least squares regression), AIC (Akaike Information Criterion).

Character Intercept p of intercept Slope p (slope of 0) p (slope of.1) R2 NLS intercept NLS slope change in AIC AIC
relative likelihood
All -0.01 0.74 0.14 <.001 <.001 0.55 <.01 1.06 -0.05 0.98
L P2 0.05 0.55 0.04 0.69 0.54 -0.1 0.01 0.4 -0.02 0.99
L P3 <.01 0.95 0.11 <.001 0.69 0.45 <.01 0.96 -0.02 0.99
L P4 0.01 0.51 0.08 <.001 0.28 0.72 <.01 0.87 -0.37 0.83
L M1 -0.08 <.01 0.2 <.001 <.001 0.95 <.01 1.39 -3.74 0.15
L M2 -0.07 <.01 0.16 <.001 <.001 0.95 <.01 1.27 0.13 0.94
L M3 0.02 0.47 0.06 <.001 0.01 0.73 <.01 0.85 -0.31 0.85
W P2 0.04 0.27 0.04 0.37 0.28 -0.01 <.01 0.43 0.02 0.99
W P3 0.02 0.34 0.07 0.01 0.25 0.41 <.01 0.81 0.45 0.8
W P4 -0.01 0.83 0.1 <.001 0.91 0.51 <.01 1.06 0 1
W M1 -0.03 0.28 0.12 <.001 0.39 0.74 <.01 1.2 0.1 0.95
W M2 -0.04 0.39 0.12 <.001 0.51 0.62 <.01 1.19 0.17 0.92
W M3 -0.12 0.02 0.18 <.001 0.01 0.77 <.01 1.77 -1.26 0.53
Premolars 0.14 0.3 0.05 0.36 0.27 -0.01 0.08 0.47 -0.11 0.95
Molars -0.22 0.03 0.13 <.001 0.07 0.85 0.03 1.49 -0.98 0.61
Tooth row -0.04 0.73 0.08 <.001 0.14 0.65 0.07 1.04 0.08 0.96

 

 

TABLE 8. Regression Coefficients for Average and Standard deviations, without Camelus species. Significant p values are italicized and highlighted in grey. Change in AIC reflects increase in model fitness from Linear to Non-Linear model, negative numbers indicate linear model is preferred. AIC likelihood reflects likelihood of that AIC change being statistically significant; <.05 is a statistically significant likelihood. Acronyms: NLS (non-linear least squares regression), AIC (Akaike Information Criterion).

Character Intercept p of intercept Slope p
(slope of 0)
p
(slope of.1)
R2 NLS intercept NLS
slope
change
in AIC
AIC likelihood
All 0.01 0.38 0.11 <.001 0.3 0.56 0.11 0.98 0.02 0.99
L P2 0.05 0.55 0.04 0.69 0.54 -0.1 0.09 0.4 -0.02 0.99
L P3 -0.02 0.75 0.15 0.12 0.59 0.15 0.12 1.15 0.05 0.97
L P4 -0.03 0.29 0.14 <.01 0.29 0.59 0.1 1.41 -0.11 0.95
L M1 -0.02 0.49 0.14 <.001 0.12 0.75 0.12 1.12 0.16 0.93
L M2 -0.06 0.14 0.15 <.001 0.06 0.79 0.09 1.34 0.11 0.95
L M3 0.04 0.25 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.48 0.09 0.71 0.77 0.68
W P2 0.04 0.27 0.04 0.37 0.28 -0.01 0.08 0.43 0.01 0.99
W P3 0.08 0.01 <.01 0.94 0.01 -0.1 0.08 0.01 0 1
W P4 -0.01 0.93 0.1 0.19 0.98 0.08 0.1 0.99 0.01 1
W M1 -0.04 0.47 0.12 0.01 0.63 0.44 0.08 1.3 0.06 0.97
W M2 -0.07 0.21 0.14 <.01 0.3 0.55 0.07 1.56 -0.03 0.98
W M3 -0.09 0.04 0.15 <.001 0.08 0.74 0.06 1.79 -0.67 0.72
Premolars 0.09 0.67 0.07 0.41 0.72 -0.03 0.15 0.63 -0.05 0.98
Molars -0.19 0.03 0.12 <.001 0.21 0.82 0.03 1.59 -1.43 0.49
Tooth row -0.22 0.35 0.11 0.01 0.85 0.42 0.03 1.45 0.14 0.93
Caniniform Teeth -0.01 0.6 0.29 <.001 <.001 0.91 0.27 1.06 -0.2 0.91