FIGURE 1. Green Waterhole Cave in Mt Gambier, South Australia. This site has produced many exquisitely preserved Pleistocene fossils, mostly of large kangaroos. 1. Overview of the site, arrow indicates the cave entrance from which most fossils were extracted. 2. View from arrow into cave entrance, showing current water level and beginning of talus cone.

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FIGURE 2. Examples of fossils from underwater caves. 1. Fossils lying on the sedimentary floor in Kilsby’s Sinkhole, Mt Gambier, South Australia. 2. Skull of Simosthenurus maddocki from Green Waterhole Cave, showing the characteristic black staining of the majority of fossils from this deposit.

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FIGURE 3. Diver excavating in low visibility conditions of the Aucilla River, Florida, under the cone of a 1000-W underwater work light. Photo credit: Tim Barber. Reproduced from Latvis and Quitmyer (2006; figure 1.9) with permission from Springer Nature.

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