TABLE 1. Cranium measurements of “Gazella paotehensis from Qingyang (mm).

  TNP 00206 TNP 03795
P2 to foramen magnum 118.2 -
lower lachrymal suture at the edge of the orbits to tip of condyle 100.6 -
foramen magnum to rear of palate in the middle 72.0 -
breadth at glenoid fossae 56.2 -
pharyngeal tubercles of basioccipital to middle of parietal 55.8 -
breadth between external auditory meatus 57.6 -
breadth between occipital condyles 36.7 -
caudal edge of foramen magnum to projection of nuchal ligament 23.8 -
rostrocaudal length of orbit 37.8 -
dorsoventral height of orbit 38.0 35.8
maxillary above M3 to roof of orbits 53.6 52.7
length of auditory bullae 24.3 -
width of auditory bullae 14.2 -
maximum breadth between nasal 23.9 -
breadth between pharyngeal tubercles 11.7 8.1
internal breadth between basal pedicles 19.8 18.0
P2-M3 51.3 -
P2-P4 29.7 -
M1-M3 22.8 -
width between bases of M1 25.5 29.9
width between bases of M2 28.1 32.6

 

TABLE 2. Horn cores measurements of “Gazella paotehensis from Qingyang (mm).

Specimen number Type DAP DML LAS Ratio
TNP 00203 L 22.4 18.5 >72.5 0.83
  R 22.5 18.6 >78.4 0.83
TNP 03795 L 24.7 20.8 > 75.7 0.84
TNP 03797 R 20.2 16.5 > 94.8 0.82
TNP 03798 R 19.8 16.1 > 86.7 0.81
TNP 05313 L 21.2 16.6 > 92.4 0.78
TNP 05315 R 23.2 18.7 > 67.5 0.81
TNP 0536 L 20.8 16.6 > 86.5 0.80
THP 05716 L 23.0 20.2 > 98.2 0.88
THP 05724 L 23.1 17.1 > 84.1 0.74
THP 06313 L 19.7 16.5 > 85.9 0.84
THP 06316 L 20.3 15.7 > 80.1 0.78
THP 06317 R 22.4 18.2 > 84.1 0.81
HP 06318 L 22.2 17.0 > 76.7 0.77
THP 06338 R 21.6 17.2 > 88.5 0.80
THP 06351 R 20.8 16.0 > 64.1 0.77
THP 06359 R 20.2 16.3 > 58.7 0.81
THP 06384 L 21.8 17.4 > 92.8 0.80
THP 06385 L 22.7 17.1 > 86.4 0.76
THP 06387 R 22.6 17.5 > 70.4 0.78
THP 06783 R 23.9 16.1 > 74.7 0.68
THP 06841 L 23.8 18.4 > 82.7 0.77
THP 07281 L 20.0 16.1 > 77.5 0.80

DAP, anteroposterior diameter at the base; DML, mediolateral diameter at the base; LAS, anterior straight length, > nearly complete, missing the tip, >> far from complete; Ratio, the ratio between mediolateral and anteroposterior diameters

 

 

 

TABLE 3. Upper tooth measurements of “Gazella paotehensis from Qingyang (mm).

Specimen number Type L W1 W2 H1 H2 Wear stage Specimen number Type L W1 W2 H1 H2 Wear stage
TNP 00205 L P3 7.2 5.6 7.2 4.9 -   TNP 03795 L P4 7.1 6.5 6.5 8.1 -  
  L P4 6.6 7.9 7.5 5.9 -     L M3 - 7.6 - 9.8 -  
  L M1 9.3 - 9.5 4.9 4.7 heavy   R P2 7.3 5.0 5.8 8.2 -  
  L M2 11.5 9.7 8.7 6.7 6.9     R P3 8.5 5.4 6.2 7.9 -  
  L M3 12.3 8.5 7.3 7.7 8.4     R P4 7.0 6.5 6.7 8.4 -  
  R M1 - - 9.3 - 4.5 heavy   R M2 - - 8.5 - 8.8 moderate
  R M2 11.4 9.5 8.7 6.3 6.6   TNP 03866 L P3 7.6 6.5 7.0 9.1 -  
  R M3 12.3 9.0 7.6 7.6 9.2     L P4 7.4 6.8 6.9 8.3 -  
TNP 00206 L P2 8.4 5.8 6.2 6.1 -     L M1 10.3 9.7 8.1 6.7 6.9 moderate
  L P3 7.4 5.9 6.5 5.9 -     L M2 13.1 9.5 7.6 9.3 9.1  
  L P4 6.3 6.9 6.8 5.9 -     R P3 7.7 6.4 6.7 8.4 -  
  L M1 8.7 8.8 8.4 3.8 4.6 heavy   R P4 7.4 6.6 6.4 8.6 -  
  L M2 11.0 9.9 9.5 7.4 7.3     R M1 10.8 9.4 7.6 7.5 7.6 moderate
  R P3 7.5 6.0 6.6 5.8 -     R M2 12.5 9.4 7.7 10.2 9.9  
TNP 03093 L P2 8.3 5.3 5.8 6.3 -     R M3 13.0 7.9 6.8 11.4 12.3  
  L P3 7.7 5.7 6.0 6.6 -   THP 06928 L P2 7.9 5.5 6.2 5.5 -  
  L P4 7.4 7.7 7.2 7.0 -     L P3 8.2 6.6 6.9 6.5 -  
  L M1 9.9 8.9 8.2 5.9 6.5 middle   L P4 6.6 7.4 7.3 6.6 -  
  L M2 11.6 9.1 7.7 8.5 8.4     L M1 8.7 - 9.0 - 5.0 heavy
  L M3 11.7 7.9 6.4 9.4 10.2     L M2 10.6 9.9 8.9 7.3 7.3  
TNP 03795 L P3 8.4 5.6 6.1 6.2 -     L M3 11.6 8.5 7.2 7.6 7.6  

L, mesiodistal length; W1, width at mesial lobe; W2, width at distal lobe; H1, height at the paracone; H2, height at the metacone.

 

 

 

TABLE 4. Lower tooth measurements of “Gazella paotehensis from Qingyang (mm).

Specimen number Type L W1 W2 W3 H1 H2 Wear stage
TNP 03855 L p2 5.6 3.2 3.4 - 4.2 -  
  L p3 8.2 3.2 4.5 - 5.8 -  
  L p4 9.2 3.9 5.5 - 7.1 -  
  L m1 9.8 6.2 6.7 - 6.7 6.4 moderate
  L m2 11.5 7.2 7.3 - 8.6 8.3  
  L m3 15.9 6.7 6.4 4.0 9.4 8.3  
TNP 03856 L p3 7.8 3.2 4.1 - 5.3 -  
  L p4 8.5 4.1 5.2 - 5.7 -  
  L m1 9.2 5.9 6.6 - 5.1 4.8 middle
  L m2 10.7 6.7 6.2 - 8.6 8.3  
  L m3 14.7 6.1 6.1 3.9 9.9 8.3  
TNP 03857 R p4 8.7 4.2 5.2 - 4.0 -  
  R m1 8.4 6.4 6.7 - 3.7 3.8 heavy
  R m2 10.7 7.3 7.6 - 5.4 5.1  
  R m3 16.1 7.2 6.9 5.0 6.6 6.2  
TNP 03865 L p2 5.6 2.9 3.1 - 4.2 -  
  L p3 7.4 3.2 3.7 - 6.6 -  
  L p4 9.3 3.6 4.9 - 7.4 -  
  L m1 9.3 5.4 5.7 - 6.4 6.4 moderate
  L m2 11.0 6.3 6.2 - 9.1 9.1  
  L m3 14.9 6.1 6.0 3.6 9.5 8.9  
TNP 03876 L p3 6.8 3.4 4.0 - 3.7 -  
  L p4 8.6 4.5 4.7 - 3.7 -  
  L m1 7.0 5.7 6.1 - 2.8 3.0 heavy
  L m2 - 6.5 - - 6.4 6.9  
THP 06863 L p4 - - 4.8 - 6.7 -  
  L m1 9.7 5.5 5.9 - 6.7 7.3 moderate
  L m2 11.2 6.3 6.1 - 8.2 7.5  
  L m3 15.7 6.2 5.6 3.7 8.6 7.4  
THP 07326 L p2 5.4 2.7 3.0 - 3.7 -  
  L p3 7.4 3.1 3.7 - 5.5 -  
  L p4 8.4 3.3 4.7 - 6.3 -  
  L m1 - 5.9 - - 6.9 7.1 middle
  L m2 10.7 6.2 6.1 - 8.4 8.3  
  L m3 13.9 5.9 5.5 2.8 9.1 8.9  

L, mesiodistal length; W1, width at mesial (first) lobe; W2, width at distal (second) lobe; W3, width at third lobe, especially for m3; H1, height at the protoconid for lower premolar, height at the metaconid for lower molar; H2, height at the entoconid for lower molar.

 

TABLE 5. Horn cores measurements of “Gazella dorcadoides from Qingyang (mm).

Specimen number Type DAP DML LAS Ratio
TNP 00204 L 19.7 16.7 >>40.1 0.85
  R 19.6 15.7 >>51.2 0.80
TNP 03854 R 21.9 17.6 > 94.9 0.81
TNP 03875 R 20.5 17.0 > 76.2 0.83
THP 06324 L 20.8 17.5 > 77.1 0.84
THP 06348 R 20.6 19.5 >> 58.6 0.95
THP 06349 R 21.8 18.3 >> 61.4 0.84
THP 06380 R 20.3 16.1 > 79.8 0.80

For explanations see Table 2.

 

TABLE 6. Upper tooth measurements of “Gazella dorcadoides from Qingyang (mm).

Specimen number Type L W1 W2 H1 H2 Wear stage
TNP 03793 L P2 6.5 5.4 5.6 6.1 -  
  L P3 6.6 - 5.9 - -  
  L P4 6.8 6.5 6.1 - -  
  L M1 9.1 9.2 9.2 - - heavy
  L M2 11.3 9.9 8.5 - -  
  L M3 11.9 8.3 6.2 - -  
  R P2 6.8 5.4 5.9 - -  
  R P3 6.9 5.8 - - -  
  R M2 11.6 9.6 - - -  
  R M3 11.9 8.6 6.7 - -  
TNP 03794 R P3 7.2 5.2 6.5 9.7 -  
  R P4 6.5 - - - -  
  R M1 10.4 8.5 7.5 6.2 7.5 moderate
  R M2 12.6 8.2 7.2 10.2 8.8  
  R M3 11.2 6.2 4.8 13.4 14.3  
TNP 03854 L M2 10.9 9.2 8.3 7.6 7.7  
  R M1 - - 8.5 - 3.8 heavy
  R M2 11.0 8.8 8.1 6.4 6.8  
  R M3 11.7 7.6 6.9 8.1 6.3  
TNP 03867 R P2 6.9 4.7 4.8 7.7 -  
  R P3 7.1 5.0 5.1 6.5 -  
  R P4 6.4 5.9 5.7 10.0 -  
  R M1 10.3 8.4 7.9 7.3 7.0 moderate
  R M2 11.6 7.9 7.1 8.7 8.3  
  R M3 11.8 7.1 5.3 9.5 7.9  

For explanations see Table 3.

 

TABLE 7. Lower tooth measurements of “Gazella” dorcadoides from Qingyang (mm).

Specimen number Type L W1 W2 W3 H1 H2 Wear stage Specimen number Type L W1 W2 W3 H1 H2 Wear stage
TNP 03858 L p2 4.5 2.2 2.7 - 4.5 -   TNP 03862 R m2 11.2 5.8 5.7 - 8.7 8.7  
  L p3 6.3 3.1 3.1 - 6.2 -   TNP 03863 L p2 4.4 2.2 2.5 - 4.2 -  
  L p4 8.1 3.8 4.1 - 6.5 -     L p3 6.6 2.5 3.1 - 5.4 -  
  L m1 - - - - - - heavy   L p4 8.5 3.5 3.5 - 6.4 -  
  L m2 10.5 5.4 5.5 - 7.6 8.3     L m1 8.9 5.2 5.6 - 5.4 7.3 middle
  L m3 15.4 - 5.2 3.7 - 8.6     L m2 10.6 5.6 5.7 - 8.2 8.9  
TNP 03859 R p3 6.5 2.5 3.3 - 5.2 -     L m3 13.2 5.1 5.1 3.0 8.4 8.4  
  R p4 8.4 3.4 3.8 - 6.6 -   TNP 03864 R p4 9.5 4.5 4.3 - 7.9 -  
  R m1 8.7 5.3 5.5 - 5.9 6.8 moderate   R m1 - 5.7 - - 7.7 - moderate
  R m2 11.5 5.6 5.8 - 8.4 9.1   TNP 03868 R m1 9.4 5.7 6.2 - 3.9 4.9 heavy
  R m3 13.0 5.2 5.1 3.2 - 8.1     R m2 11.5 6.1 6.4 - 8.4 10.7  
TNP 03860 R p3 6.6 3.3 3.1 - 6.9 -     R m3 16.8 5.7 5.8 4.2 14.4 13.9  
  R p4 8.5 3.7 3.6 - 6.9 -   THP 03028 L p2 5.6 2.6 3.0 - 4.4 -  
  R m1 8.6 5.3 5.4 - 7.3 7.6 moderate   L p3 7.3 3.2 3.3 - 5.8 -  
  R m2 12.0 5.7 5.5 - 8.1 8.7     L p4 9.2 4.4 5.1 - 6.8 -  
  R m3 - 5.2 5.0 - 10.6 11.8     L m1 10.9 5.1 5.9 - 5.9 6.7 middle
TNP 03861 L m1 - - - - - - moderate   L m2 12.4 5.7 6.5 - 8.1 8.8  
  L m2 11.2 5.8 5.6 - 13.0 12.9     L m3 17.8 5.5 5.6 4.2 10.0 9.1  
  L m3 14.8 5.3 4.9 3.2 15.5 15.6   THP 07000 R p4 8.2 4.3 4.5 - 6.1 -  
TNP 03862 R p2 4.4 2.2 2.3 - 3.9 -     R m1 9.2 5.3 5.9 - 4.6 5.8 middle
  R p3 6.4 2.9 2.9 - 5.5 -     R m2 11.8 5.5 5.7 - 6.7 8.3  
  R p4 7.4 4.1 3.7 - 6.8 -     R m3 - 5.2 - - 8.1 -  
  R m1 10.3 5.3 5.9 - 6.8 6.7 moderate  

 

 

TABLE 8. Comparisons between “Gazellapaotehensis and “G.dorcadoides.

Characters References “Gazella” paotehensis “Gazella” dorcadoides “Gazella” gaudryi*
horn core divergence Teilhard de Chardin and Young (1931)

Zhang and Yang (2016)

moderate slight slight
horn core inclination in lateral view Zhang and Yang (2016) moderate strong moderate
weak posterior basal horn core swelling this study present absent absent
cranial roof Zhang and Yang (2016) hind part curved hind part inclined hind part curved
dorsal orbital rim this study wide and inclined wide and horizontal narrow and inclined
temporal ridges approach this study strongly, equal to foramen magnum moderately, wider than foramen magnum moderately, wider than foramen magnum
cheek teeth hypsodonty Bohlin (1935, 1939)

Zhang and Yang (2016)

mesodont hypsodont mesodont
size of upper P2 and P3 Schlosser (1903) equal P2<P3 P2<P3
ratio of length of lower premolar row to length of lower molar row this study >0.60 <0.60 >0.60
paraconid-metaconid fusion on p4 this study fuse in late wear absent absent
lingual stylid in the valley of paraconid and metaconid on p4 this study present in high frequency absent absent
ectostylids on lower molars this study m1-m3 m1 m1-m3
lower molar lingual walls Schlosser (1903)

Zhang and Yang (2016)

outbowed flat outbowed

*Based on the morphologies of specimens M 3573, M 3575, M 3576 kept in Uppsala Universitet Evolutionsmuseet.