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TABLE 1. Univariate statistics for anteroposterior tooth length (mm) of specimens listed in Appendix 3. n = number of specimens, Mean = arithmetic mean, StDev = standard deviation, CV = coefficient of variation expressed as a percentage.

Taxon n Mean StdDev CV (%)
L. latifrons 177 9.4 1.0 10.4
N. boodjamullensis 10 7.1 0.6 8.7
P. cinereus 621 7.5 0.5 6.3
P. gigas 45 22.6 2.6 11.5
R. magna 16 19.6 2.0 10.1
S. medius 25 13.7 0.9 6.8
V. ursinus 236 10.4 1.1 10.3
W. encorensis 18 9.3 1.2 12.7
W. wakefieldi 21 7.2 0.9 12.4
R. crowcrofti 15 13.7 1.0 7.4
R. ngangaba 7 11.6 0.7 6.2
Specimens from BaD 4 11.5 1.0 8.9
Specimens from BR 2 12.6 0.3 2.2
R. crowcrofti and R. ngangaba combined 22 13.0 1.4 10.6
R. crowcrofti from COA only 11 13.7 0.9 6.4
R. crowcrofti and specimens from BR combined 17 13.6 1.0 7.6
R. crowcrofti and specimens from BaD combined 19 13.3 1.4 10.2
R. crowcrofti and QM F23763 combined 16 13.7 1.0 7.4
R. ngangaba and specimens from BR combined 9 11.8 0.8 6.6
R. ngangaba and specimens from BaD combined 11 11.6 0.8 6.8
R. ngangaba and QM F23763 combined 8 11.7 0.8 7.0

 

TABLE 2. Body weight estimates for a range of taxa based on third molar area using the ‘Diprotodontians only’ data set in Myers (2001). The 3UMA and 3LMA equations were used for upper and lower molars, respectively. n = number of measurements used in calculation.

Taxon Tooth position n Body weight estimate Notes
Min (kg) Max (kg) Average (kg)
L. latifrons m2-3 14 10 27 19 Very low estimate based on this sample. Expected body weight for L. latifrons is 17.5-36 kg (Taggart and Temple-Smith, 2008).
M2-3 11 11 27 16
N. boodjamullensis M2-3 4 6 10 8  
P. cinereus m2-3 172 4 11 7 Expected body weight is 4.1-14.9 kg (Martin et al., 2008), although Myers (2001) gives 5-6 kg.
M2-3 139 7 17 11
P. gigas m2-3 6 216 300 255  
M2-3 2 191 254 223
R. lemleyi m2-3 2 147 165 156  
R. crowcrofti m2-3 5 48 63 54 Around 50 kg. About double the size of modern wombats.
M2-3 4 36 68 51
R. ngangaba m2-3 1 25 25 25 Half the weight of R. crowcrofti, similar in size to modern wombats.
M2-3 1 25 25 25
V. ursinus m2-3 17 14 34 22 Expected body weight for V. ursinus is 22-39 kg (McIlroy, 2008), excluding Tasmanian and Flinders Island forms (which were included in this sample).
M2-3 12 13 24 18
W. encorensis m2-3 6 12 28 19 Considering the underestimates for modern wombats (which are similar in size and morphology), this could also be an underestimate.
M2-3 6 13 19 16
W. wakefieldi m2-3 5 7 11 9  
M2-3 5 5 8 7
S. medius m3 3 37 41 39 Using 3LML equation, as don't have widths.

 

TABLE 3. Estimated ontogenetic stages for Rhizophascolonus specimens. Wear stage for each tooth corresponds to 1 = developing, 2 = erupting, 3 = in occlusion but with little or no wear and 4=noticeable wear. Ontogenetic stage is modified from Black et al., 2010. Age and life stage are based on Green and Rainbird, 1987 and Triggs, 2009 for V. ursinus, Taggart et al., 2007 for L. latifrons and Blanshard, 1990 for P. cinereus. * = based on P. cinereus.

Specimen number Site Taxon Tooth position Wear stage Ontogenetic
stage
Approximate
age
Early life stage
QM F57959 COA R. crowcrofti MX 4 At least stage IV > 8 months  
QM F57960 COA R. crowcrofti mx 4 At least stage IV > 8 months  
QM F57963 COA R. crowcrofti MX 4 At least stage IV > 8 months  
QM F12452 COA R. crowcrofti mx 3 At least stage IV If m3 = 10-12 months; If m4 = older than 12 months*  
QM F20706 CS R. ngangaba MX (1 to)2 Late II to III (depending on whether M2 or M3) 6-8 months In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally
QM F57967 CS R. ngangaba m1 3 II 5-7 months Suckling pouch young, starts to venture out of pouch occasionally
QM F23772 CS R. ngangaba M1 3 II 5-7 months Suckling pouch young, starts to venture out of pouch occasionally
QM F57968 GGS R. ngangaba mx 2 (to 3) Late II to III (depending on whether m2 or m3) 6-8 months In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally
QM F23765 Upper R. ngangaba M1 2 to 3 Early II 5-6 months Suckling pouch young, first emergence from pouch
QM F23769 CS R. ngangaba mx 2 to 3 Late II to III (depending on whether m2 or m3) 6-8 months In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally
QM F23764 Upper R. ngangaba m1 3 II 5-7 months Suckling pouch young, first emergence from pouch
QM F23768 Upper R. ngangaba mx 3 Late II to III (depending on whether m2 or m3) 6-8 months In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally
QM F23903 CS R. ngangaba P3 3 (to 4) III 7-8 months At foot, occasionally suckles
QM F23763 Upper Rhizophascolonus sp. mx 2 If m3 = III; If m4 = at least stage IV > 7 months  
QM F57966 COA Rhizophascolonus sp. p3 or dp3 3 (to 4) If dp3 = I to early II; If p3 = late II or early III If dp3 = < 6 months; If p3 = 6-8 months Suckling pouch young

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