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APPENDIX 1.

Size and development of p3 in early ontogeny in Vombatus ursinus, relative to m1-2. 1. NMV C3133, mandible with i1, p3, m1-3. 2. NMV C10928, right hemimandible with i1, p3 and m1-2.

APPENDIX 2.

Comparison of V. ursinus molar width measurements when measured at the occlusal surface in the jaw (which is affected by curvature of tooth and angle of wear) and when measured on isolated teeth and at 90° to tooth height (i.e., true width).

Institution Specimen number Tooth position Moiety

Buccolingual
width of
moiety at occlusal
surface (mm)

Buccolingual
width of
moiety 90 degrees
to height (mm)

Width overestimate if
measured at occlusal
surface (mm)

Average overestimate
per tooth
position (mm)

NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 m1 Anterior 6.13 6.28 -0.15 0.22
NHMUK ZD 1856.12.10.690     4.9 4.78 0.12
NHMUK ZD 1877.2.6.8     6.67 5.97 0.7
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13 m2   7.31 5.8 1.51 1.82
NHMUK ZD 1877.2.6.8     8.95 6.83 2.12
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 m3   8.74 7.24 1.5 1.09
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13     7.02 5.64 1.38
NHMUK ZD 1856.12.10.690     6.06 5.66 0.4
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 m4   8.27 6.85 1.42 1.5
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13   7.35 5.64 1.71
NHMUK ZD 1877.2.6.8   7.68 6.25 1.43
NHMUK GERM 1496 a   7.91 6.48 1.43
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 M2   7.61 7.62 -0.01 0.21
NHMUK ZD 1887.3.1.2   7.26 7.23 0.03
NHMUK GERM 1496 a   7.76 7.16 0.6
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 M3   7.42 7.39 0.03 0.79
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13   7.22 6.03 1.19
NHMUK GERM 1496 a   8.08 6.94 1.14
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 M4   7.04 6.8 0.24 0.89
NHMUK ZD 1926.3.11.127   8.09 6.32 1.77
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13   6.07 5.42 0.65
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 m1 Posterior 7 6.81 0.19 0.58
NHMUK ZD 1856.12.10.690     5.42 5.17 0.25  
NHMUK ZD 1877.2.6.8     7.8 6.49 1.31  
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13 m2   6.58 5.59 0.99 -
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 m3   8.14 6.77 1.37 0.92
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13     6.79 5.62 1.17  
NHMUK ZD 1856.12.10.690     5.63 5.41 0.22  
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 m4   7.72 6.5 1.22 1.17
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13   6.64 5.7 0.94
NHMUK ZD 1877.2.6.8   6.97 5.58 1.39
NHMUK GERM 1496 a   7.96 6.82 1.14
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 M2   8.56 7.03 1.53 1.72
NHMUK ZD 1887.3.1.2   8.51 6.97 1.54
NHMUK GERM 1496 a   9.02 6.93 2.09
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 M3   7.59 6.67 0.92 0.91
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13     6.69 5.76 0.93  
NHMUK GERM 1496 a     7.53 6.64 0.89  
NHMUK ZD 1900.3.16.1 M4   5.44 4.96 0.48 0.94
NHMUK ZD 1926.3.11.127     6.65 4.7 1.95  
NHMUK ZD 1846.8.7.13     4.59 4.21 0.38  

APPENDIX 3.

Molar measurements. Refer to Materials and Methods section for information on measurement of widths. (Appendix 3 supplied as electronic file.)

APPENDIX 4.

Description of characters and character states used in the phylogenetic analysis. All characters are unordered, except the ones marked by an asterix.

1.* Number of upper incisors (modified from Springer et al., 1997; modified from Rougier et al., 1998; modified from Wroe et al., 2000; modified from Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003; modified from Black et al., 2012a): (0) More than three; (1) Two or three; (2) One.

2. Presence of hypselodont I1 : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

3.* Maximum height versus maximum width of I1 : (0) Maximum dorsoventral height greater than maximum mediolateral width: (1) Maximum height and width about same (within 10% either side); (2) I1 wider than deep.

4. Upper canine (modified Springer et al., 1997; Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003; Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Present; (1) Absent or vestigial.

5. Molar morphology (modified from Springer et al., 1997; Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003; Black, 2007; Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Tribosphenic; (1) Selenodont; (2) Semi-lophodont/bunodont.

6. Hypselodont cheek teeth (modified from Murray, 1998) : (0) No; (1) Yes.

7. Enamel noticeably thicker on trailing edge (lingual surface on upper molars and buccal surface on lower molars) relative to leading edge of molars (buccal surface on upper molars and lingual surface on lower molars) : (0) No; (1) Yes.

8.* Enamel tracts that extend down the lingual surface of upper molars and buccal surface of lower molars : (0) No; (1) To a moderate extent; (2) Extensively.

9. Lingual cusps slightly higher than buccal cusps on upper molars : (0) No; (1) Yes.

10. Stylar cusp posterobuccal to the paracone (in the position of St-C) is large and well-developed (better than the stylar cusp buccal or anterobuccal to the paracone and equivalent to St B in koalas) : (0) No; (1) Yes.

11.* Separation of stylar cusps C and D (modified from Myers and Archer, 1997; modified from Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Close together; (1) Separated.

12. Postprotocrista meets premetaconulecrista : (0) Present, they are closely associated; (1) Absent, there is a large gap between postprotocrista and premetaconulecrista.

13. Cusp immediately posterior to metaconule on lingual margin (at posterolingual corner of tooth) : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

14. Molars equally constricted on buccal and lingual sides M2-4/m2-4 : (0) Yes; (1) No, deeper on lingual side of uppers and buccal side of lowers.

15. Relatively high and complete crest forming anterior margin of occlusal surface on M2-4 and m2-4 : (0) No; (1) Yes.

16.* Anteroposterior length of M2/3 and m2/3 : (0) Small (<8.5 mm); (1) Medium (8.5-12.5 mm); (2) Large (>12.5 mm).

17. M1 with decrease in enamel height on lingual surface at constriction or just posterior to this : (0) No; (1) Yes.

18. Paracone located on buccal margin of M1 : (0) No; (1) Yes.

19. Occlusal surface on anterior moiety of M1 very narrow : (0) No; (1) Yes.

20.* Presence of a cusp on posterobuccal side of M1 (and occasionally M2) in position of St-E : (0) No; (1) Yes but poorly developed; (2) Yes.

21.* Anterior moiety of M1 wider than posterior moiety (on average) : (0) Yes; (1) Similar in size; (2) Posterior moiety is wider.

22. M2 width of anterior moiety versus tooth length (modified from Springer et al., 1997; Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003 and Black et al., 2012a) : (0) M2 longer than wide; (1) M2 width and length approximately equal or M2 wider than long.

23.* M2 width of anterior moiety versus posterior moiety : (0) Anterior wider than posterior; (1) Anterior similar to posterior; (2) Posterior wider than anterior.

24. Number of lower incisors (modified from Springer et al., 1997; modified from Rougier et al., 1998; modified from Wroe et al., 2000; modified from Luo et al., 2002; modified from Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003; modified from Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Two or more; (1) One.

25. Apex of lingual cusp (entoconid) slightly anterior to apex of buccal cusp (hypoconid) on posterior moiety of lower m2-3 : (0) No; (1) Yes.

26.* Pre-entocristid and postmetacristid don't really meet except at their base. This is most obvious on the posterior moiety : (0) Absent; (1) Slightly developed; (2) Well-developed.

27. Medial crest from hypoconid connects to a lingual medial crest which extends to the entoconid : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

28. Hypoconulid : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

29. Dentine tract at buccal constriction on m1 : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

30. Distinct and separate paraconid on M2-3 : (0) No; (1) Yes.

31. Incisive foramen in deep fossa formed by intradiastemal ridges/crests that "V" posteriorly to a point at or posterior to incisivomaxillary suture (modified from Merrilees, 1967 and Tedford, 2002) : (0) No; (1) Yes.

32. Incisive foramen posterior (modified from Dawson, 1983b; Murray, 1998; Tedford, 2002) : (0) No; (1) Yes, the incisive foramina lie posteriorly, just anterior to P3, in a deep pocket at the rear of the diastema. The posterior position of the foramina correspondingly displaces the incisivomaxillary suture to a position just anterior to the cheek tooth row.

33. Lateral edge of palate emarginated from I1 to P3 in ventral view (modified from Tedford, 2002) : (0) No; (1) Yes.

34. Palate wide anteriorly (modified from Dawson, 1981, 1983; Murray, 1998; Tedford, 2002) : (0) Diastemal palate is parallel-sided or narrows anteriorly; (1) Palate consistently widens anteriorly.

35. Palate width opposite first molar (ventral view) (Merrilees, 1967; Scott et al., 1988) : (0) Narrow, less than mesiodistal width of first molar; (1) Wide, equal to or greater than mesiodistal width of first molar.

36. Median premaxillary process (Tedford, 2002) : (0) No; (1) Well-developed or present as a low spine at the midline dorsal surface of the premaxillary bones.

37.* Position of infraorbital foramen : (0) Close to level of alveolar process; (1) Approximately midway between dorsal surface of skull and alveolar process; (2) Closer to dorsal surface of skull than alveolar process of tooth row.

38. Posterior palatal vacuities (maxillopalatine vacuity) (modified from Archer, 1984; modified Reig et al., 1987; modified Rougier et al., 1998; modified Wroe et al., 2000; modified Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003; modified Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Extends anteriorly to anterior or opposite M1 or M2; (1) Confined within palatine, opposite M3-4.

39.* Nasal aperture retracted beyond incisor arcade (modified from Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Absent or just posterior to incisor arcade; (1) Retracted to above diastema (or level of incisivomaxillary suture); (2) Retracted to above cheek tooth row.

40. Nasomaxillary suture length relative to nasopremaxillary suture length (dorsal view) (Scott et al., 1988) : (0) Nearly same or greater; (1) Far less than nasopremaxillary suture length.

41. Combined breadth of nasal bones (dorsal view) (Merrilees, 1967; Scott et al., 1988) : (0) Much less than length; (1) Equal to or greater than length.

42. Angle between rostral part of zygomatic bone and the maxillary bone (ventral view) (Scott et al., 1988) : (0) About 45°; (1) About 90°.

43. Dorsoventral position of ventral extent of anterior zygomatic root (relative to the cheek tooth row) : (0) Close to level of alveolar process; (1) Distant to alveolar process.

44.* Anteroposterior position of ventral extent of anterior zygomatic root (relative to the cheek tooth row) : (0) Posterior to M2; (1) Above M2; (2) Anterior to M2.

45. Postglenoid process (Springer et al., 1997; Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003; modified Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Present; (1) Absent.

46. Tympanic cavity roof elements (Travoullion et al., 2010 modified; Black et al., 2012a modified) : (0) Alisphenoid contributes to roof; (1) Alisphenoid does not contribute to roof.

47. Tympanic floor elements (Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Alisphenoid; (1) Some squamosal contribution.

48.* Postglenoid cavity / epitympanic fossa (modified Murray, 1998; modified Tedford, 2002; modified Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Absent; (1) Present, but shallow; (2) Present and moderately extensive/deep.

49. Squamosal epitympanic wings inflated (modified from Tedford, 2002) : (0) No; (1) Yes.

50. Hypotympanic sinus large (Tedford, 2002) : (0) No; (1) Extends anterolaterally into the zygomatic root of the squamosal.

51. Rostral tympanic process of periotic (Rougier et al., 1998; Sánchez -Villagra and Wible, 2002; Horovitz and Sánchez-Villagra, 2003 modified; Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Strong; (1) Weak / absent.

52. Narrow mastoid strip on occiput (Murray, 1986; Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

53. Ventrolaterally flared mastoid process on occiput (Murray, 1986; Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

54.* Rostral origin of ascending ramus (mandible) (modified from Scott et al., 1988) : (0) Mid m3 or anterior to this; (1) Posterior m3 to posterior m4; (2) Posterior to fourth molar.

55.* Depth of masseteric fossa (mandible) (Merrilees, 1967; Scott et al., 1988) : (0) Shallow to medium; (1) Deep; (2) Very deep.

56. Angle of the anterior border of the ascending ramus (mandible) (modified from Hope and Wilkinson, 1982; modified from Black, 2007; modified from Black et al., 2012a) : (0) < 70°; (1) >= 70°.

57.* Posterior extent of mandibular symphysis (mandible) (Black, 2007; Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Anterior to m1; (1) Below m1; (2) Posterior to m1.

58. Fused mandibular symphysis : (0) Absent; (1) Present.

59. Flared masseteric eminences (mandible) (Murray, 1998; Black et al., 2012a) : (0) Absent/weak; (1) Moderately to strongly flared.

60.* Maximum depth of ramus : (0) Below junction between m3 and m4 or posterior to this; (1) Below m2 or m3; (2) Below m1 or anterior to this.

61. Maximum width across flared masseteric eminences divided by cheek tooth row length : (0) Below 2 on average; (1) Above 2 on average.

62.* Humerus: deltoid tuberosity (modified from Scott and Richardson, 1988) : (0) Acutely angled ridge - less than 30 degrees; (1) Shallow angled ridge - between about 30 and 40 degrees; (2) Very shallowly angled ridge - greater than 40 degrees.

APPENDIX 5.

Character matrix for the phylogenetic analysis. Character numbers are in bold at top of tables. Character descriptions are provided in Appendix 4. ? = missing data.

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Galadi speciosus 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Phascolarctos cinereus 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wakaleo schouteni 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 ? 1 0 0 0 0 0
Sedophascolomys medius 2 1 2 1 ? 1 1 2 ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? 2 ? ? ? ? 1 0 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? 1
Phascolonus gigas 2 1 2 1 ? 1 1 2 ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? 2 0 ? ? ? 1 0 0 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? 1
Ramsayia magna 2 1 2 1 ? 1 1 2 ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? 2 ? ? ? ? ? 0 0 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Warendja encorensis ? 1 1 ? 2 1 1 2 1 ? 1 1 1 0 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? 0 1 ? ? ? 1 1 1 ? ?
Warendja wakefieldi 2 1 0 1 ? 1 1 2 ? ? ? ? ? 0 ? 0 0 ? ? ? 2 0 1 1 ? ? ? ? 1 ? 0
Nimbavombatus boodjamullensis ? 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 ? ? ? ? 0 0 0 0 1 1 ? ? 0 0 0 ? ? ? ? ? 0 ? 0
Lasiorhinus latifrons 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 ? ? 1 2 2 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
Vombatus ursinus 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 1 1 1 ? ? 0 1 0
Rhizophascolonus crowcrofti ? 1 0 ? 2 0 1 2 1 ? ? 0 1 0 1 2 1 ? ? ? 0 0 0 ? ? 2 1 1 0 ? ?
Rhizophascolonus ngangaba ? ? ? ? 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 ? 2 0 0 ? ? 2 1 1 0 0 ?
                                                               
  32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62
Galadi speciosus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 ? ?
Phascolarctos cinereus 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Wakaleo schouteni 0 0 0 1 ? 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0
Sedophascolomys medius 1 1 1 1 ? ? 1 ? ? ? 0 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 0 2 1 1 ? ? ?
Phascolonus gigas 1 1 1 0 1 ? 1 2 ? ? 1 1 ? 1 ? ? 2 0 1 ? ? ? 0 2 0 2 1 1 1 0 2
Ramsayia magna ? 0 0 ? 1 ? 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? ?
Warendja encorensis ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 1 0 ? ? 1 ? ? ?
Warendja wakefieldi 0 0 0 1 ? 1 0 ? ? ? 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 ? ? ? ? 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 ? 1
Nimbavombatus boodjamullensis ? 0 ? 1 ? 1 0 ? ? ? 0 0 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Lasiorhinus latifrons 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
Vombatus ursinus 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 ? 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 1
Rhizophascolonus crowcrofti ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Rhizophascolonus ngangaba ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

APPENDIX 6.

List of unambiguous apomorphies common to all three most parsimonious trees after removal of Ramsayia magna from the analysis.

Node (from) Node (to) Character number Change Character Description (new state)
Outgroup Ingroup 2 0→1 Presence of hypselodont I1
    7 0→1 Enamel noticeably thicker on trailing edge (lingual surface on upper molars and buccal surface on lower molars) relative to leading edge of molars (buccal surface on upper molars and lingual surface on lower molars)
    8 0→1 Enamel tracts that extend down the lingual surface of upper molars and buccal surface of lower molars
    22 1→0 M2 longer than anterior width
  Hypselodont wombats 6 0→1 Hypselodont cheek teeth
    23 0→1 M2 anterior and posterior widths are similar
  Hypselodont wombats excl. Warendja 3 1→2 I1 wider than deep
    14 0→1 Molars are not equally constricted on buccal and lingual sides M2-4/m2-4
  V. ursinus 35 1→0 Palate width opposite first molar (ventral view) is narrow, less than mesiodistal width of first molar
    60 1→0 Maximum depth of ramus is below junction between m3 and m4 or posterior to this
  Hypselodont wombats excl. Warendja and Vombatus 33 0→1 Lateral edge of palate emarginated from I1 to P3 in ventral view
    36 0→1 Median premaxillary process is well-developed or present as a low spine at the midline dorsal surface of the incisive bones
    54 1→0 Rostral origin of ascending ramus (mandible) is mid m3 or anterior to this
    62 1→2 Deltoid tuberosity of humerus forms a very shallowly angled ridge - greater than 40 degrees
  L. latifrons 39 1→0 Nasal aperture is not retracted beyond incisor arcade or just posterior to incisor arcade
S. medius, P. gigas and L. latifrons S. medius and P. gigas 16 1→2 Anteroposterior length of M2/3 and m2/3 is greater than 12.5 mm
    21 2→1 Anterior and posterior moieties of M1 are similar in size
    31 0→1 Incisive foramen in deep fossa formed by intradiastemal ridges/crests that "V" posteriorly to a point at or posterior to premaxillomaxillary suture
    32 0→1 Incisive foramina lie posteriorly, just anterior to P3, in a deep pocket at the rear of the diastema. The posterior position of the foramina correspondingly displaces the premaxillomaxillary suture to a position just anterior to the cheek tooth row
    34 0→1 Palate consistently widens anteriorly
S. medius and P. gigas P. gigas 23 1→0 Anterior moiety of M2 is wider than posterior moiety
    35 1→0 Palate width opposite first molar (ventral view) is narrow, less than mesiodistal width of first molar

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