APPENDIX 1

List of specimens of Sorex subaraneus, S. araneus and S. runtonensis.

S. subaraneus - typical collection from Erpfingen - (nos. coll. Heller 1938/a1-a12 and b1b6).

S. subaraneus from Kadzielnia 1 - numbers: MF/1958, Przymiłowice 3A - MF/6864, Kozi

Grzbiet - MF/1957, Rębielice Królewskie 4 - MF/1962.

S. araneus recent - numbers: M/2, M/59, M/71, M/4518, M/4557, M/4561, M/4573, M/4674,

M/4707, M/4743, M/8580, M/8582 -83, M/8585 - 92, M/8595-97, M/8599 a, b, c, M/10303, M/11027, M/11030, M/11290-93, M/11296-97, M/11299, M/11300-301, M/11303, M/11305308, M/11310-311, M/11314-317.

Sorex araneus from: Nietoperzowa Cave (ls. 15-14) - MF/874, Puchacza Skała Cave III -

MF/937, Borsuka Cave - MF/6870, Raj Cave (ls. 1-11) - MF/6871, Obłazowa Cave 2 MF/6872, Krucza Skała Rock Shelter (ls. 1-8 and I-V) - MF/3193, Koziarnia Cave (ls. 3-19)

- MF/898, Nietoperzowa Cave (ls. 8-9,13) - MF/874, Żytnia Skała Cave 1 and 2 - MN/927,

Mamutowa Cave 1 and 2 - MF/6873, Komarowa Cave (l. Ftx) - MF/3185, Obłazowa Cave -

MF/5104, Józefów - MF/629, Nad Mosurem Starym Duża Cave - MF/6875, Duża Cave at Mączna Skała (l. 3) - MF/4249.

Sorex runtonensis from: Żabia Cave - ZPAL M. 12/6, Kozi Grzbiet - MF/1961, Raj Cave (l. 1-10) - MF/6876, Krucza Skała

Rock Shelter (ls. 1-8, I-V) - MF/3192, Komarowa Cave (remaining layers) MF/3184, Obłazowa Cave - F/2261.

APPENDIX 2

APPENDIX 2 TABLE 1. Dimensions (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Sorex subaraneus from several localities in Europe.

  Sorex cf. subaraneus Sorex subaraneus Sorex subaraneus Sorex subaraneus Sorex subaraneus
  Betfia XIII, IX, VII/3, VII/4, V
(Rzebik-Kowalska, 2000)
Early Pleistocene
Romania
Morovitsa Cave
(Popov, 1989)
Middle Pleistocene
Bulgaria
Varbeshnitsa
(Popov, 1988)
Middle Pleistocene
Bulgaria
Kadzielnia 1, Przymiłowice 3A, Kozi Grzbiet,
Rębielice Królewskie 4, Early and Middle
Pleistocene
Poland
Erpfingen
Middle Pleistocene
Germany
  Min. - Max. N Min. - Max. N Min. - Max. N Min. - Max. N Min. - Max. N
m1 L
m1 W
1.31 - 1.48
0.81 - 0.88
6 5 - - - - 1.32 - 1.45 - 8 - 1.35 - 1.49
0.80 - 0.98
61
60
1.41 - 1.66
0.82 - 0.93
7
7
m2 L
m2 W
1.15 - 1.28
0.76 - 0.97
4 3 - - - - 1.17 - 1.34 - 12 - 1.18 - 1.30
0.73 - 0.87
46
45
1.25 - 1.40
0.75 - 0.86
5
5
m3 L
m3 W
1.06
0.65
1 1 - - - - 0.97 - 1.10 - 6 - 0.95 - 1.11
0.56 - 0.67
27
27
0.99 - 1.13
0.64 - 0.78
4
4
m1-m3 L - - 3.57 - 3.95 4 3.52 - 3.55 2 3.57 - 3.78 16 3.52 - 3.80 4
H of ascending ramus 3.95 -4.09 4 4.09 - 4.52 7 4.12 - 4.37 10 3.80 - 4.54 18 4.01 - 4.64 18
W of coronoid process 0.76 - 0.86 4 - - - - 0.70 - 1.00 19 - -
H of condyloid process 1.60 - 1.78 2 - - 1.30 - 1.50 11 1.57 - 1.87 5 1.44 - 1.84 17

 

APPENDIX 2 TABLE 2. Dimension (in mm) of mandible and lower teeth of Sorex subaraneus from four localities in Poland.

  Sorex subaraneus
  Kadzielnia 1
Early Pleistocene
Przymiłowice 3A
Early Pleistocene
Kozi Grzbiet
Early/Middle Pleistocene
Rębielice Królewskie 4
Middle Pleistocene
  Min. X Max. N Min. X Max. N Min. X Max. N sd cv Min. X Max. N
i1 L i1 H - - -- -- -- -- 3.60
0.94
-- 11 3.37
0.71
3.52
0.84
3.66
0.93
17
35
0.10
0.04
2.84
4.76
-- - 0.86 -- -

1

a1 L (bucc) - - - - - 1.05 - 1 0.82 0.94 1.05 12 0.06 6.38 - 0.95 - 1
p4 L
p4 W
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.13
0.80
-

-

1

1

0.89
0.65
1.02
0.72
1.14
0.80
33
31
0.05
0.04
4.90
5.56
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
m1 L
m1 W
1.45
0.86
1.46
0.88
1.47
0.90
2

2

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.35
0.80
1.43
0.85
1.49
0.98
56
57
0.03
0.03
3.00
3.53
1.44
0.85
1.45
0.86
1.46
0.88
2
2
m2 L
m2 W
1.27
0.80
1.28
0.83
1.29
0.86
2

2

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.18
0.73
1.25
0.78
1.30
0.87
40
39
0.03
0.03
2.40
3.85
1.24
0.76
1.26
0.76
1.28
0.77
4
4
m3 L
m3 W
1.00
0.65
1.00
1.65
1.01
0.66
2

2

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.95
0.56
1.04
0.62
1.11
0.67
24
24
0.04
0.03
3.85
4.84
-
-
1.00
0.59
-
-
1
1
m1-m3 L - 3.70 - 1 - - - - 3.57 3.69 3.95 16 0.10 2.71 - - - -
H of mandible below m2 1.24 1.28 1.30 3 - - - - 1.12 1.23 1.33 43 0.05 4.06 1.19 1.24 1.30 2.00
H of ascending ramus 4.40 4.40 4.41 2 - - - - 3.80 4.18 4.54 16 0.19 4.54 - - - -
W of coronoid process 0.94 0.95 0.96 2 - - - - 0.70 0.87 1.00 17 0.07 8.05 - - - -
H of condyloid process - - - - - - - - 1.57 1.72 1.87 5 - - - - - -
W of interarticular area - - - - - - - - 0.5 0.57 0.66 12 0.05 8.77 - - - -


APPENDIX 2 TABLE 3. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Sorex subaraneus in Poland.

  Sorex subaraneus
  Kozi Grzbiet
Early/Middle Pleistocene
Rębielice Królewskie 1A
Middle Pleistocene
  Min. X Max. N sd cv Min. X Max. N
I1 L - - - - - - - - - -
I1 L of talon - - - - - - - - - -
I1 H of talon - 1.09 - 1 - - - - - -
A1 L 0.76 0.81 0.86 2 - - - - - -
A1 W 0.72 0.78 0.85 2 - - - - - -
A2 L 0.72 0.78 0.86 2 - - - - - -
A2 W 0.70 0.76 0.83 2 - - - - - -
A3 L 0.62 0.65 0.69 2 - - - - - -
A3 W 0.61 0.66 0.71 2 - - - - - -
A4 L - 0.64 - 1 - - - 0.57 - 1
A4 W - 0.64 - 1 - - - 0.59 - 1
A5 L 0.48 0.51 0.54 2 - - - 0.43* - 1
A5 W 0.59 0.60 0.61 2 - - - 0.58 - 1
P4 L (bucc.) 1.44 1.50 1.56 12 0.03 2   1.51 - 1
M1 L (max.) 1.31 1.39 1.46 14 0.04 2.88 - - - -
M1 L (med.) 1.05 1.09 1.18 14 0.04 3.67 - - - -
M1 W (max.) 1.47 1.55 1.61 14 0.04 2.58 - - - -
M2 L (max.) 1.21 1.26 1.33 7 0.05 3.97 - - - -
M2 L (med.) 0.96 1.02 1.06 8 0.03 2.94 - - - -
M2 W (max.) 1.40 1.46 1.50 7 0.04 2.74 - - - -

 

APPENDIX 2 TABLE 4. Comparison of dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of Sorex subaraneus and Sorex runtonensis in Poland.

  Sorex runtonensis Sorex subaraneus
  Żabia Cave, Early Pleistocene,
Rzebik-Kowalska, 2013
Raj Cave, Late Pleistocene, Vistulian

Krucza Skała Rock Shelter, Late Pleistocene, Late Vistulian

Komarowa Cave, Late Pleistocene - Holocene

Kozi Grzbiet, Early/Middle Pleistocene

  Min. X Max. N sd cv Min. X Max. N sd cv Min. X Max. N sd cv
A3 L
A3 W
-
-
0.67
0.63
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.63
0.66
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
0.62
0.61
0.65
0.66
0.69
0.71
2
2
-
-
-
-
A4 L
A4 W
0.49
0.56
0.52
0.58
0.55
0.60
2
2
-
-
-
-
0.50
0.58
0.51
0.60
0.52
0.62
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.64
0.64
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
A5 L
A5 W
0.48
0.49
0.48
0.53
0.49
0.56
3
3
-
-
-
-
0.48
0.55
0.53
0.57
0.56
0.60
3
3
-
-
-
-
0.48
0.59
0.51
0.60
0.54
0.61
2
2
-
-
-
-
P4 L (bucc.) 1.30 1.42 1.55 16 0.77 4.93 1.30 1.42 1.51 9 0.07 4.93 1.44 1.50 1.56 12 0.03 2.00
P4 L (max.)
M1 L (med.)
M1 W (max.)
1.28
1.00
1.43
1.32
1.06
1.51
1.36
1.11
1.63
13
14
13
0.03
0.03
0.05
2.27
2.83
3.31
1.32
1.04
1.39
1.38
1.12
1.48
1.45
1.16
1.56
9
9
9
0.04
0.04
0.06
2.90
3.57
4.05
1.31
1.05
1.47
1.39
1.09
1.55
1.46
1.18
1.61
14
14
14
0.04
0.04
0.04
2.28
3.67
2.58
M2 L (max.)
M2 L (med.)
M2 W (max.)
1.19
0.96
1.35
1.25
1.01
1.43
1.31
1.04
?
11
11
11
0.05
0.03
0.04
4.00
2.97
2.80
1.18
0.95
1.30
1.25
1.01
1.41
1.35
1.05
1.51
8
9
8
0.06
0.03
0.07
4.80
2.97
4.96
1.21
0.96
1.40
1.26
1.02
1.46
1.33
1.06
1.50
7
8
7
0.05
0.03
0.04
3.97
2.94
2.74


APPENDIX 2 TABLE 5. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of recent Sorex araneus in Poland.

  Sorex araneus
  recent
Poland
  Min. X Max. N sd cv
I1 L
I1 L of talon
I1 H of talon
1.58
0.82
1.10
1.76
0.96
1.22
1.94
1.11
1.31
32
45
31
0.10
0.07
0.05
5.68
7.29
4.10
A1 - A5 L 2.66 2. 86 3. 15 47 0.18 6.29
A1 L
A1 W
0.79
0.73
0.87
0. 81
0.96
0. 89
48
48
0.04
0. 03
4.60
3.70
A2 L
A2 W
0.75
0.71
0.84
0.77
0.94
0.81
48
48
0.04
0.02
4.76
2.60
A3 L
A3 W
0.67
0.62
0.75
0.68
0.82
0.74
49
49
0.04
0.03
5.33
4.41
A4 L
A4 W
0.52
0.55
0.62
0.63
0.72
0.69
50
50
0.05
0.03
8.06
4.76
A5 L
A5 W
0.40
0.47
0.47
0.56
0.58
0.66
50
50
0.04
0.05
8.51
8.93
P4 L 1.46 1.56 1.66 51 0.04 2.56
M1 L (max.)
M1 L (med.)
M1 W (max.)
1.38
1.06
1.58
1.47
1.13
1.67
1.57
1.24
1.83
51
51
51
0.05
0.04
0.05
3.40
3.54
2.99
M2 L (max.)
M2 L (med.)
M2 W (max.)
1.20
0.98
1.48
1.29
1.04
1.57
1.37
1.14
1.71
50
50
50
0.04
0.03
0.05
3.10
2.88
3.18
M3 L (max.)
M3 W (max.)
0.67
1.14
0.72
1.24
0.81
1.33
46
45
0.03
0.04
4.17
3.23

 

 

APPENDIX 2 TABLE 6. Dimensions (in mm) of upper teeth of fossil Sorex araneus in Poland.

  Sorex araneus
  Puchacza Skała Cave III, Borsuka Cave, Raj Cave (ls. 1-10), Obłazowa Cave 2, Krucza Skała Rock Shelter (ls. 1-8 and I-V), Koziarnia Cave (ls. 3-19), Nietoperzowa Cave (ls. 8-9 and 13), Żytnia Skała Cave 1, Mamutowa Cave 1 and 2 and Komarowa Cave (l. Ftx)

Late Pleistocene

Józefów, Raj Cave (l. 11), Nad Mosurem Starym Duża Cave, Duża Cave at Mączna Skała (l. 3), Żytnia skała Cave 2

Holocene

  Min. X Max. N sd cv Min. X Max. N sd cv
I1 L
I1 L of talon
I1 H of talon
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
  1.75
0.91
1.25
1.83
1.04
1.27
1.92
1.14
1.30
2
3
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
A1-A5 L - 2.92 - 1 - - - - - - - -
A1 L
A1 W
0.84
0.86
0.86
0.90
0.90
0.94
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.88
0.83
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
A2 L
A2 W
0.77
0.83
0.86
0.87
0.96
0.91
8
8
0.06
0.03
6.98
3.45
0.85
0.80
0.89
0.86
0.93
0.91
4
4
-
-
-
-
A3 L
A3 W
0.63
0.71
0.78
0.77
0.86
0.83
14
14
0.06
0.03
7.69
3.90
0.75
0.71
0.80
0.76
0.86
0.83
6
7
-
0.04
-
5.26
A4 L
A4 W
0.61
0.64
0.67
0.72
0.77
0.80
9
9
0.05
0.05
7.46
6.94
0.58
0.70
0.73
0.77
0.86
0.87
5
5
-
-
-
-
A5 L
A5 W
0.48
0.61
0.56
0.67
0.66
0.71
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.51
0.67
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
P4 L(bucc.) 1.40 1.58 1.76 56 0.07 4.43 1.49 1.58 1.71 28 0.06 3.80
M1 L(max.)
M1 L(med.)
M1 W(max.)
1.39
1.05
1.46
1.47
1.16
1.62
1.58
1.30
1.80
47
47
46
0.05
0.06
0.06
3.40
5.17
3.70
1.39
1.06
1.54
1.46
1.13
1.63
1.56
1.22
1.75
22
22
22
0.05
0.04
0.06
3.42
3.54
3.68
M2 L(max.)
M2 L(med.)
M2 W(max.)
1.24
0.98
1.39
1.30
1.05
1.53
1.42
1.12
1.63
28
30
26
0.05
0.04
0.06
3.85
3.81
3.93
1.23
0.99
1.44
1.30
1.05
1.52
1.38
1.14
1.66
13
14
14
0.07
0.04
0.06
5.38
3.31
3.95
M3 L(max.)
M3 W(max.)
-
-
0.70
1.15
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.68
1.14
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-

APPENDIX 3

APPENDIX 3 FIGURE 1. 1 - Sorex araneus, recent (no. M/8583). 2-3 - S. araneus, Holocene, Raj Cave, layer 11 (nos. MF/6871/5 and /2) respectively. 4-5 - S. araneus, Late Pleistocene, Raj Cave, L. 4 (nos. 17a-17b), respectively. 6 - S. subaraneus, Early/Middle Pleistocene, Kozi Grzbiet, l. 2C (no. MF/1957/25). 7 - S. runtonensis, Late Pleistocene, Krucza Skała Rock Shelter, l. 8 (no. MF/3192/1).

 

APPENDIX 3 FIGURE 2. 1 - S. araneus, recent, anterior view of left P4 (no. M/10303) and 2 - S. subaraneus, Early/Middle Pleistocene, Kozi Grzbiet, l. 2B, buccal view of left a1 (no. MF/1957/17).

appendix 3 2a

 

APPENDIX 4

S. subaraneus Poland. The upper antemolar A5 is usually smaller than A4, however one A5 from Obłazowa 2 Cave is larger than A4 (Harrison 1996). The P4 is characterized by a large parastyle separated from the paracone by a more or less horizontal and rather long parastylar crest. If the P4 is not used a small cingular cusp between the parastyle and protocone is visible. In some specimens, it is even prominent.

Recent S. araneus, Poland. The I1 is not fissident. Its upper buccal margin is straight or slightly convex and the apex is turned downwards. The posterior buccal margin can be either undulate or slightly concave and provided with a rather broad cingulum along most of its length. The talon is well developed and buccaly inflated. The apex and the talon are placed at a sharp angle.

Five upper antemolars are present. They are unicuspid and as a rule they diminish in size from A1 to A5 although the largest A1 and A2 are of nearly the same size, A3 and A4 are smaller but also similar in size. The last antemolar A5 is the smallest and always wider than long. When seen from the buccal side it is slightly hidden behind the parastyle of P4.

Two crests run from the antemolar tips - one to the lingual edge and the second to the postero-buccal corner of each of the five teeth. The antero-buccal sides of these teeth are convex and the postero-lingual sides are concave, but in A1-A4 (rarely in A5) these concavities are divided by the lingual crests. The postero-lingual concavities (depressions) are longer and deeper than the antero-lingual ones. The cingula are wide and well developed.

The P4 has a well individualized conical parastyle. It is connected to the paracone by a more or less elongated parastylar crest. The paracone is high and not very inflated, the protocone is well developed and isolated from the small cingular cusp, hypocone, by a wide and deep valley. The hypoconal flange is large and rounded. The cingulum surrounds the parastyle and continues as far as the postero-buccal corner of the tooth. It is only lacking on the buccal side and below the protocone. In unworn teeth, a small cingular cusp is present between the parastyle and the protocone. The posterior emargination is well developed.

The M1 is roughly square and M2 rectangular in occlusal view. The parastyles are absent. The hypocones are weakly developed as cuspules on the cingulum which surrounds the hypoconal flanges. They are separated from the protocones by wide valleys. The metalophs are present but they are not very high. Fragments of cingulum are visible on the buccal sides as well as in the protocone/hypocone valleys and the posterior sides of the first and second molars. The hypoconal flanges and emargination are similar to those of P4. The M3 is not very long in its lingual side. Its protocone is well developed and the hypocone is absent.

Fossil S. araneus, Poland. Unfortunately, the number of upper jaw fragments and upper teeth of fossil S. araneus is limited. However, their individual variation is similar to that of the recent form. For example, the parastylar crest of the upper P4 is shorter or longer and situated more or less horizontally, the small cingular cusp situated between the parastyle and the protocone can be more or less distinct, and the shape of the M2 in occlusal view more rectangular or more squared.