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FIGURE 1. Palaeobatrachus sp.; late Miocene, early Turolian; Russia: 1, 2 - frontoparietal, GIN 1144/210: 1 - dorsal view, 2 - ventral view; 3, 4 - frontoparietal, GIN 1144/211: 3 - dorsal view, 4 - ventral view; 5, 6 - frontoparietal, GIN 1143/330: 5 - dorsal view, 6 - ventral view; 7, 8 - frontoparietal, GIN 1143/331: 7 - dorsal view, 8 - ventral view; 9, 10 - frontoparietal, GIN 1143/332: 9 - dorsal view, 10 - ventral view; 11 - reconstructed frontoparietal based on GIN 1143/330-332; 12, 13 - frontoparietal, GIN 1143/333: 12 - dorsal view, 13 - ventral view; 14 - reconstructed frontoparietal based on GIN 1143/333; 15-16 - sphenethmoid, GIN 1143/335: 15 - dorsal view, 16 - ventral view; 17 - sphenethmoid, GIN 1143/336, dorsal view; 18 - sphenethmoid, GIN 1143/337, dorsal view; 19, 20 - premaxilla, GIN 1143/339: 19 - labial view, 20 - lingual view; 21 - right maxilla, GIN 1143/343, lingual view; 22-23 - right maxilla, GIN 1143/344: 22 - lingual view, 23 - dorsal view. The specimens under figures 1-4 are from Gaverdovsky locality; 5-23 - from Volchaya Balka locality. Scale equals 1 mm. The Figures 1.11 and 1.14 out of scale.

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FIGURE 2. Palaeobatrachus sp.; late Miocene, early Turolian; Russia: 1-3 - right maxilla, GIN 1143/345: 1 - labial view, 2 - lingual view, 3 - dorsal view. The specimen is from Volchaya Balka locality. Scale equals 1 mm.

 

 

FIGURE 3. Palaeobatrachus sp.; late Miocene, early Turolian; Russia: 1-2 - right nasal, GIN 1143/353: 1 - ventral view, 2 - dorsal view; 3-4 - left nasal, GIN 1143/354: 3 - dorsal view, 4 - ventral view; 5-6 - squamosal, GIN 1143/355: 5 - medial view, 6 - lateral view; 7 - left angular, GIN 1143/357, dorsal view; 8 - right angular, GIN 1143/358, dorsal view. The specimens are from Volchaya Balka locality. Scale equals 1 mm.

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FIGURE 4. Palaeobatrachus sp.; late Miocene, early Turolian; Russia: 1-3 - presacral vertebra, GIN 1143/368: 1 - dorsal view, 2 - ventral view, 3 - anterior view; 4-7 - synsacrum, GIN 1143/371: 4 - dorsal view, 5 - ventral view, 6 - anterior view, 7 - lateral view; 8, 9 - synsacrum, GIN 1143/372: 8 - dorsal view, 9 - ventral view; 10-12 - synsacrum, GIN 1143/373: 10 - dorsal view, 11 - ventral view, 12 - lateral view; The specimens are from Volchaya Balka locality. Scale equals 1 mm.

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FIGURE 5. Palaeobatrachus sp.; late Miocene, early Turolian; Russia: 1-4 - urostyle, GIN 1143/377: 1 - dorsal view, 2 - ventral view, 3 - lateral view, 4 - anterior view; 5 - left clavicle, GIN 1144/223, dorsal view; 6 - left coracoid, GIN 1143/378, ventral view, 7 - right coracoid, GIN 1143/379, ventral view; 8, 9 - left scapula, GIN 1143/382: 8 - dorsal view, 9 - ventral view; 10-12 - right humerus, GIN 1143/384: 10 - ventral view, 11 - dorsal view, 12 - medial view; 13, 14 - right ilium, GIN 1143/387: 13 - lateral view, 14 - medial view. The specimens under figures 1-4, 6-14 are from Volchaya Balka locality; 5 - from Gaverdovsky locality. Scale equals 1 mm.

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FIGURE 6. Geological distribution of Palaeobatrachus records in the Miocene-Pleistocene.

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FIGURE 7. Occurrences of Palaeobatrachus in the early (black triangles), middle (white circles) and late (black circles) Miocene; based on Wuttke et al., 2012 (with changes): 1, Weisenau (early Miocene, MN 1) (Wolterstorff, 1887); 2, Tomerdingen (early Miocene, MN 1-2) (Dehm, 1935, Sanchiz, 1998, Rage and Roček, 2003); 3, Am Hambusch (= Dyckerhoff in Mainz-Amöneburg, or Kastel, Amöneburg, Biebrich, Hessler) (early Miocene, Aquitan to Burdigal, MN 2-3) (Schleich, 1988); 4, Haslach bei Ulm (early Miocene, MN 2) (Wolterstorff, 1887); 5, Laugnac (early Miocene, MN 2) (Vergnaud-Grazzini and Hoffstetter, 1972, Hossini and Rage, 2000); 6, Poncenat (early Miocene, MN 2) (Rage and Roček, 2003; Hossini and Rage, 2000); 7, Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (early Miocene, MN 1-2) (Rage and Roček, 2003); 8, Hájek (= Grassengrün) near Karlovy Vary (early Miocene) (Špinar, 1972); 9, Kaltennordheim (early Miocene) (Wolterstorff, 1887); 10, Skyřice (= Skyritz) (early Miocene, MN 3) (Špinar, 1972); 11, Issoire (early Miocene, MN 1-5) (Rage and Roček, 2003); 12, Randecker Maar (middle Miocene, MN 5) (Roček et al., 2006); 13, Anatolia (early Miocene) (Claessens, 1997); 14, Sansan (Middle Miocene, MN 6) (Vergnaud-Grazzini and Hoffstetter, 1972; Hossini and Rage, 2000); 15, Mátraszölös 2 (middle Miocene, MN 6) (Venczel, 2004); 16, Sámsonháza (middle Miocene, MN 6) (Venczel, 2004); 17, Opole (middle Miocene, MN 7) (Młynarski et al., 1982); 18, Subpiatră 2/2 (middle Miocene, MN 7+8) (Hír and Venczel, 2005, Venczel et al., 2005); 19, Tauţ (late middle Miocene, MN 7+8) (Venczel and Ştiucă, 2008); 20, Adelschlag (late middle Miocene, MN 6-8) (Schlosser, 1916); 21, Felsőtárkány 3/10 and Felsőtárkány-Felnémet 2/3 (late Middle Miocene, MN 7+8) (Venczel and Hir, 2013); 22, Götzendorf/Sandberg (late Miocene, MN 9) (Harzhauser and Tempfer, 2004); 23, Rudabánya (late Miocene, MN 9) (Roček, 2005); 24, Gritsev (late Miocene, MN 9) (Wuttke et al., 2012; Vasilyan et al., 2016); 25, Volchaya Balka and Gaverdovsky (late Miocene, MN 11) (this paper).

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