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FIGURE 1. Location of Paleoparasitological investigations (the map from http://kimkardashiani.blogspot.ru). The finds of parasites in Proboscidea: 1 - the Beryozovsky mammoth, 2 - the Kirgilaykh mammoth, 3 - the Shandrin mammoth, 4 - Berelekh mammoth cemetery, 5 - the Zhenya Mammoth; in Perissodactyla: 6 - the Selerikan horse, 7 - horse from Ukok burial; in Artiodactyla: 8 - the Indigirka bison; in Rodentia: 9 - the Indigirka ground squirrel, 10 - Egorov’s narrow-skull vole. The finds of parasites at the archaeological sites: 11 - Caucasus dung deposits, 12 - Voymezhnoe, 13 - Zamostye-1, 2; 14 - Maray-1, 15 - Yarte-6, 16 - Nadym settlement, 17 - Ust-Voikar, 18 - Mangezeya, 19 - Zeleny Yar, 20 - Kikki-Akki, 21 - Vesakoyakha, 22 - Nyamboyto, 23 - Yaroslavl Kremlin.

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FIGURE 2. The Beryozovsky mammoth. 2.1 - the exhibit of Zoological museum in St. Petersburg (photograph by A.N. Tikhonov); 2.2 - the formation of “problematic bodies” located in the submucous membrane of the stomach of mammoth; 2.3 - a separate “body” (Zalenskyi, 1909, table V, figure 7). Reproduced with permission of ZIN RAS.

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FIGURE 3. Spermophilus glacialis Vinogradov, 1948 (photograph by F.N. Golenishchev). Reproduced with permission of ZIN RAS.

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FIGURE 4. The mammoth calf Dima (Kirgilaykh mammoth): 4.1 - photograph taken at the discovery site (photograph by A.V. Lozhkin); 4.2 - “parasite eggs” in the blood vessels of Kirgilaykh mammoth, 4.3 - “a helminth fragment” (Ivanova, 1981, figures 15 and 16, p. 143). The figure was modified by the author.

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FIGURE 5. The woman mummy from Ukok and her reconstruction. The photo was modified by the author (photograph by K.A. Bannikov, V.P. Mylnikov and reconstruction by D.V. Pozdnyakov).

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FIGURE 6. The bots of Gastrophilus intestinalis De Geer, 1776 from horse stomach, Ukok burial (Shokh, 2000, figure 278, p. 253). The photo was modified by the author.

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