FIGURE 1. 1) Schematic geological map of Campi Flegrei (after Vitale and Isaia, 2014, modified); location of the sections and of the Tunnel Excavation. 2) Chronology of the main volcanic events in the CF.

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FIGURE 2. Chronostratigraphic correlation of the La Starza sections (including Tunnel Section) with sampling location and dated levels. Chronostratigraphic data are according Rosi and Sbrana, 1987; Giudicepietro, 1993; Di Vito et al., 1999; de Vita et al., 1999; Isaia et al., 2009; Passariello et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011.

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FIGURE 3. Benthic foraminiferal and ostracod assemblage trends in Section C (samples STCZ 18 - STZC 34). See text and Table 9 for details.

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FIGURE 4. Dendrogram based on cluster analyses of benthic foraminifer abundance (I) data.

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FIGURE 5. Dendrogram based on cluster analyses of ostracod abundance (I) data (MNI).

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FIGURE 6. Dendrogram based on cluster analyses of ostracod abundance (I) data (TNV).

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FIGURE 7. Paleoecological events through the La Starza succession and paleobathymetry trends. UC: upper circalittoral; LI: lower infralittoral; UI: upper infralittoral; M: marginal; C: continental.

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FIGURE 8. Cornuspira involvens (Reuss, 1850), side view, sample STZC 21, ABMC 2016/005; 2 Adelosina longirostra (d’Orbigny, 1826), four chamber side, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2016/046; 3 Quinqueloculina parvula Schlumberger, 1894, four chamber side, sample STZC 21, ABMC 2016/040; 4 Quinqueloculina seminulum (Linnaeus, 1758), four chamber side, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2016/007; 5 Triloculina trigonula (Lamarck, 1804), peripheral view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2016/079; 6 Sigmoilinita distorta (Phleger and Parker, 1951), side view, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2016/080; 7 Sigmoilinita distorta (Phleger and Parker, 1951), side view, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/004; 8 Grigelis guttiferus (d’Orbigny, 1846), lateral view, sample STZC 13, ABMC 2017/003; 9 Laevidentalina communis (d’Orbigny, 1826), lateral view, sample STZC 34, ABMC 2016/042; 10 Marginulina similis d’Orbigny, 1846, side view, sample STZC 21, ABMC 2016/026; 11 Hyalinonetrion clavatum (d’Orbigny, 1846), lateral view, sample STZC 23, ABMC 2016/084; 12 Reussoolina laevis (Montagu, 1803), lateral view, sample STZC 24, ABMC 2016/087; 13 Lagena semistriata Williamson, 1848, lateral view, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2016/023; 14 Lagena striata (d’Orbigny, 1839), lateral view, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2016/008; 15 Globulina minuta (Roemer, 1838), side view, sample STZC 25, ABMC 2016/073; 16 Favulina hexagona (Williamson, 1848), lateral view, sample STZC 13, ABMC 2016/059; 17 Fissurina nummiformis (Buchner, 1940), lateral view, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2016/039; 18 Robertina translucens Cushman and Parker, 1936, lateral view, sample STZC 20, ABMC 2016/088; 19 Stainforthia complanata (Egger, 1893), lateral view, sample STZC 26, ABMC 2016/003; Scale bar 1, 3, 14, 15, 17 - 50 µm; 2, 4-13, 16, 18, 19 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 9. 1 Bolivina pseudoplicata Heron-Allen and Earland, 1930, lateral view, sample STZC 18, ABMC 2016/047; 2 Bolivina variabilis (Williamson, 1858), lateral view, sample STZC 18, ABMC 2016/049; 3 Brizalina aenariensis Costa, 1856, lateral view, sample STZC 29 ABMC 2016/081; 4 Brizalina aenariensis Costa, 1856, lateral view, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2017/005; 5 Brizalina striatula Cushman, 1922, lateral view, sample STZB 6, ABMC 2017/007; 6 Bolivina catanensis Seguenza, 1862, lateral view, sample STZC 25, ABMC 2016/074; 7 Bolivina lowmani Phleger and Parker, 1951, lateral view, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/033; 8 Brizalina spathulata (Williamson, 1858), lateral view, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2016/063; 9 Cassidulina carinata Silvestri, 1896, side view, sample STZC 21, ABMC 2016/028; 10 Cassidulina carinata Silvestri, 1896, apertural side, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2017/095; 11 Cassidulina obtusa Williamson, 1858, apertural side, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2016/032; 12 Globocassidulina subglobosa (Brady, 1881), apertural side, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/088; 13 Evolvocassidulina bradyi (Norman, 1881), lateral view, sample STZC 24, ABMC 2016/037; 14 Reussella spinulosa (Reuss, 1850), lateral view, sample STZC 23, ABMC 2016/085; 15 Rectuvigerina phlegeri Le Calvez, 1959, lateral view, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/022; 16 Bulimina aculeata d’Orbigny, 1826, lateral view, sample STZC 20, ABMC 2016/041; 17 Bulimina elongata d’Orbigny, 1846, lateral view, sample STZC 18, ABMC 2016/010; 18 Bulimina marginata d’Orbigny, 1826, lateral view, sample STZC 15, ABMC 2016/020; 19 Trifarina angulosa (Williamson, 1858), lateral view, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2016/004; Scale bar 1, 2, 6, 11-13, 16-19 - 50 µm; 3-5, 7-10, 14, 15 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 10. 1 Fursenkoina subacuta (d’Orbigny, 1852), lateral view, sample STZB 6, ABMC 2016/025; 2 Fursenkoina tenuis (Seguenza, 1862), lateral view, sample STZC 22, ABMC 2016/057; 3 Valvulineria complanata (d’Orbigny, 1846), spiral side, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2016/009; 4 Gavelinopsis praegeri (Heron-Allen and Earland, 1913), spiral side, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2016/082; 5 Gavelinopsis praegeri (Heron-Allen and Earland, 1913), umbilical side, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2016/083; 6 Rotorbis auberii (d’Orbigny, 1839), spiral side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/069; 7 Rosalina floridana (Cushman, 1922), spiral side, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2016/029; 8 Rosalina macropora (Hofker, 1951), spiral side, sample STZC 26, ABMC 2016/030; 9 Rosalina obtusa d’Orbigny, 1846, spiral side, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2016/090; 10 Rosalina obtusa d’Orbigny, 1846, umbilical side, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2016/089; 11 Tretomphalus concinnus (Brady, 1884), spiral side, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2016/065; 12 Epistominella vitrea Parker, 1953, spiral side, sample STZC 30, ABMC 2016/078; 13 Epistominella vitrea Parker, 1953, umbilical side, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2016/070; 14 Glabratella erecta (Sidebottom, 1908), side view, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2016/071; 15 Glabratella hexacamerata Seiglie and Bermudez, 1965, spiral side, sample STZC 15, ABMC 2016/066; 16 Discorbinella bertheloti (d’Orbigny, 1839), spiral side, sample STZC 33, ABCM 2017/031; 17 Cibicides lobatulus (Walker and Jacob, 1798), spiral side, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2016/001; 18 Asterigerinata adriatica Haake, 1977, spiral side, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2016/011; 19 Asterigerinata adriatica Haake, 1977, umbilical side, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2016/012. Scale bar 2, 5, 6, 9-15, 18, 19 - 50 µm; 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 16, 17 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 11. 1 Asterigerinata mamilla (Williamson, 1858), spiral side, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2016/013; 2 Asterigerinata mamilla (Williamson, 1858), umbilical side, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2017/001; 3 Asterigerinata mariae Sgarrella, 1990, spiral side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/091; 4 Asterigerinata mariae Sgarrella, 1990, oblique peripheral view, sample STZC 18, ABMC 2017/013; 5 Haynesina depressula (Walker and Jacob, 1798), side view, sample STZC 18, ABMC 2016/036; 6 Haynesina germanica (Ehrenberg, 1840), side view, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2016/064; 7 Haynesina germanica (Ehrenberg, 1840), spiral side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/055; 8 Nonion fabum (Fichtel and Moll, 1798), side view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2016/054; 9 Nonionella turgida (Williamson, 1858), side view, sample STZC 18, ABMC 2016/024; 10 Astrononion stelligerum (d’Orbigny, 1839), umbilical side, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2016/043; 11 Melonis affinis (Reuss, 1851), side view, sample STZC15, ABMC 2016/018; 12 Buccella granulata (Di Napoli Alliata, 1952), spiral side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/014; 13 Buccella granulata (Di Napoli Alliata, 1952), umbilical side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/015; 14 Ammonia aberdoveyensis Haynes, 1973 rounded form, spiral side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/002; 15 Ammonia aberdoveyensis Haynes, 1973 rounded form, umbilical side, sample STZC 23, ABMC 2016/068; 16 Ammonia aberdoveyensis Haynes, 1973 lobate form, spiral side, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2016/021; 17 Ammonia aberdoveyensis Haynes, 1973 lobate form, umbilical side, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2016/077; 18 Aubignyna perlucida (Heron-Allen and Earland, 1913), spiral side, sample STZC 23, ABMC 2016/027; 19 Ammonia beccarii (Linnaeus, 1758), spiral side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/045; 20 Ammonia beccarii (Linnaeus, 1758), umbilical side, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/062; 21 Ammonia falsobeccarii (Rouvillois, 1974), spiral side, sample STZC 13, ABMC 2016/051; Scale bar 2-7, 9 - 50 µm; 1, 8, 10-21 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 12. 1 Elphidium articulatum (d’Orbigny, 1839), side view, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2016/058; 2 Elphidium articulatum (d’Orbigny, 1839), peripheral view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/010; 3 Elphidium complanatum (d’Orbigny) var. tyrrhenianum Accordi, 1951, side view, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2016/061; 4 Elphidium complanatum (d’Orbigny) var. tyrrhenianum Accordi, 1951, side view, sample STZC 17, ABMC 2017/008; 5 Elphidium granosum (d’Orbigny, 1826), side view, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2016/016; 6 Elphidium crispum (Linnaeus, 1758), peripheral view, sample STZC 30, ABMC 2017/002; 7 Elphidium crispum (Linnaeus, 1758), side view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2016/034; 8 Elphidium incertum (Williamson, 1858), side view, STZC 29, ABMC 2016/075; 9 Elphidium macellum (Fichtel and Moll, 1798), side view, sample STZC 21, ABMC 2016/044; 10 Elphidium macellum (Fichtel and Moll, 1798), side view sample STZC 34, ABMC 2016/017; 11 Elphidium maioricense Colom, 1942, side view, sample STZC 34, ABMC 2016/019; 12 Elphidium poeyanum (d’Orbigny, 1839) FS form, side view, sample STZC 20, ABMC 2016/038; 13 Elphidium poeyanum (d’Orbigny, 1839) DS form, side view, sample STZC 20, ABMC 2016/050; 14 Elphidium pulvereum Todd, 1958, side view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2016/052; 15 Elphidium advenum (Cushman, 1922), side view, sample STZC 24, ABMC 2016/072; 16 Elphidium punctatum (Terquem, 1878), side view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/011; 17 Elphidium punctatum (Terquem, 1878), peripheral view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/012; 18 Parrellina verriculata (Brady, 1881), side view, sample STZC 20, ABMC 2016/067; Scale bar 1-5, 8, 15 - 50 µm; 6, 7, 9-14, 16-18 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 13. 1 Propontocypris ? pellucida (Müller, 1894), right valve, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/084; 2 Pseudocandona sarsi (Hartwig, 1899), left valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/068; 3 Cypris pubera O.F. Müller, 1776, juv, right valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/070; 4 Cypridopsis sp., left valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/094; 5 Cytheretta subradiosa (Roemer, 1838), left valve, sample STZC 22, ABMC 2017/072; 6 Cytheretta subradiosa (Roemer, 1838), right valve, sample STZC 22, ABMC 2017/061; 7 Cyprideis torosa (Jones, 1850), right valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/056; 8 Cytheridea neapolitana Kollmann, 1960, left valve, sample STZC 25, ABMC 2017/036; 9 Cytheridea neapolitana Kollmann, 1960, right valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/062; 10 Pontocythere turbida (Müller, 1894), left valve, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/050; 11 Eucytherura gibbera Müller, 1894, left valve, sample STZC 30, ABMC 2017/020; 12 Eucytherura gibbera Müller, 1894, carapace in dorsal view, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/092; 13 Eucytherura mistrettai Sissingh, 1972, left valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/025; 14 Eucytherura mistrettai Sissingh, 1972, right valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/077; Scale bar 11, 12, 14 - 50 µm; 1-10, 13 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 14. 1 Hemicytherura defiorei Ruggieri, 1953, left valve, sample STZC 34, ABMC 2017/091; 2 Microcytherura fulva (Brady and Robertson, 1874), left valve, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2017/078; 3 Microcytherura fulva (Brady and Robertson, 1874), right valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/076; 4 Semicytherura paradoxa (Müller, 1894), left valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/035; 5 Semicytherura alifera Ruggieri, 1959, left valve, sample STZC 23, ABMC 2017/041; 6 Semicytherura alifera Ruggieri, 1959, left valve in dorsal view, sample STZC 23, ABMC 2017/041; 7 Semicytherura incongruens (Müller, 1894), left valve, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/034; 8 Semicytherura incongruens (Müller, 1894), right valve, sample STZC 21, ABMC 2017/043; 9 Semicytherura incongruens (Müller, 1894), carapace in dorsal view, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/067; 10 Pseudocytherura strangulata Ruggieri, 1991, left valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/053; 11 Pseudocytherura strangulata Ruggieri, 1991, juv, right valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/015; 12 Semicytherura ruggierii (Pucci, 1955), left valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/044; 13 Semicytherura sulcata (Müller, 1894), left valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/024; 14 Semicytherura dispar (Müller, 1894), right valve, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/057; Scale bar 1-3 - 50 µm; 4-14 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 15. 1 Eucythere curta Ruggieri, 1975, left valve, sample STZC 25, ABMC 2017/058; 2 Pseudopsammocythere reniformis (Brady, 1868), left valve, sample STZC 10, ABMC 2017/017; 3 Leptocythere ramosa (Rome, 1942), left valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/033; 4 Callistocythere badia (Norman, 1862), left valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/048; 5 Callistocythere littoralis (Müller, 1894), left valve, sample STZC 34, ABMC 2017/016; 6 Callistocythere flavidofusca (Ruggieri, 1950), carapace in dorsal view, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2017/074; 7 Callistocythere flavidofusca (Ruggieri, 1950), left valve, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/019; 8 Callistocythere flavidofusca (Ruggieri, 1950), right valve, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/059; 9 Loxoconcha ovulata (Costa, 1863), left valve, sample STZC 30, ABMC 2017/038; 10 Loxoconcha ovulata (Costa, 1863), right valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/060; 11 Loxoconcha ovulata (Costa, 1863), juv, right valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/018; 12 Loxoconcha gibberosa Terquem, 1878, right valve, sample STZC 30, ABCM 2017/030; 13 Cytheromorpha nana Bonaduce, Ciampo and Masoli, 1976, left valve, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/069; 14 Cytheromorpha nana Bonaduce, Ciampo and Masoli, 1976, right valve, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2017/031; Scale bar 13, 14 - 50 µm;1-12 - 100 µm.

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FIGURE 16. 1 "Elofsonia" minima (Bonaduce, Ciampo and Masoli, 1976), left valve, female, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/075; 2 "Elofsonia" minima (Bonaduce, Ciampo and Masoli, 1976), left valve, male, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/066; 3 Palmoconcha turbida (Müller, 1912), left valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/032; 4 Sagmatocythere versicolor (Müller, 1894), juv, left valve, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/081; 5 Sagmatocythere versicolor (Müller, 1894), left valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/085; 6 Procytherideis retifera Ruggieri, 1978, left valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/063; 7 Procytherideis subspiralis (Brady, Crosskey and Robinson, 1874), left valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/079; 8 Sahnicythere retroflexa (Klie, 1936), right valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/065; 9 Carinocythereis whitei (Baird, 1850), left valve, sample STZC 31, ABMC 2017/046; 10 Paracytheridea paulii Dubowsky, 1939, left valve, sample STZC 32, ABMC 2017/026; 11 Paracytheridea paulii Dubowsky, 1939, left valve, sample STZC 26, ABMC 2017/080; 12 Carinocythereis whitei (Baird, 1850), carapace in dorsal view, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/071; 13 Paracytheridea triquetra (Reuss, 1850), left valve, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/022; 14 Paracytheridea triquetra (Reuss, 1850), left valve in dorsal view, sample STZC 29, ABMC 2017/022; Scale bar 100 µm.

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FIGURE 17. 1 Costa edwardsii (Roemer, 1838), left valve, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2017/042; 2 Costa edwardsii (Roemer, 1838), right valve, sample STZC 22, ABMC 2017/052; 3 Costa edwardsii (Roemer, 1838), carapace in dorsal view, sample STZC 19, ABMC 2017/073; 4 Costa edwardsii (Roemer, 1838), right valve, sample STZC 28, ABMC 2017/090; 5 Cistacythereis (Hiltermannicythere) turbida (Müller, 1894), right valve, sample STZC 25, ABMC 2017/021; 6 Cistacythereis (Hiltermannicythere) turbida (Müller, 1894), carapace in dorsal view, sample STZC 26, ABMC 2017/027; 7 Pterygocythereis jonesii (Baird, 1850), right valve, sample STZC 34, ABMC 2017/023; 8 Pterygocythereis jonesii (Baird, 1850), right valve in dorsal view, sample STZC 34, ABMC 2017/028; 9 Rectobuntonia subulata (Ruggieri, 1954), left valve, sample STZC 33, ABMC 2017/029; 10 Xestoleberis communis Müller, 1894, right valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/064; 11 Xestoleberis dispar Müller, 1894, carapace in dorsal view, sample STZC 22, ABMC 2017/040; 12 Xestoleberis ? rara Müller, 1894, right valve, sample STZC 27, ABMC 2017/087; 13 Xestoleberis dispar Müller, 1894, left valve, sample STZC 21, ABMC 2017/037; Scale bar 100 µm.

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