TABLE 1. Summary of the range of dimensions of the samples and the total number of samples collected from the 10 new fossiliferous sites along with site details and observations on the autochthonous/allochthonous nature of the material collected.

Locality Code Longitude Latitude Altitude
(m)
Total number collected Length
(cm)
Radial
(cm)
Tangential
(cm)
Observation
Western GVP (Hancili Formation)
Bolu-Kıbrısçık-Kuzca- Alanhümmet Villages KUZ E31°45'45.7554" N40°19'49.6914" 1272 22 2.5-25 1-9 2-11 Sample KUZ20 allochthonous; all others ex-situ authochthonous
Beypazarı-Nuhhoca Village (Kıraluç Site) KIR E31°45'53.4234" N40°18'3.528" 1268 73 4-22 1.5-10 1-16 ex-situ authochthonous
Beypazarı-Aşağıgüney Village AGU E31°45'54.7554" N40°19' 6.6714" 1141/1250 28 5-24 3-9.5 2-10 13 samples allochthonous; all others ex-situ authochthonous
Beypazarı-Karaşar Village KAR E31° 58' 53.2194" N40° 19' 20.6034" 1370 1 11 6.5 6.5 ex-situ authochthonous
Beypazarı-Mençeler Valley MEN E31°51'1.9794"/ E31°51'1.9794" N40°17'33.1794"/ N40°17'31.776" 1340/ 1374 34 5-20.5 6-12 1-11 ex-situ authochthonous
Beypazarı-Inozu Valley (north side) INL E31°54'55.26" N40°15'24.8754" 1117 10 7-28 2-8.5 1.5-25 ex-situ authochthonous
Beypazarı-Inozu Valley (south side) INO E31°54'34.596" N40°15'43.308" 998 11 3-24 2.5-8 1.5-14 ex-situ authochthonous
Central GVP (Pazar Formation)
Çamlıdere-Buğralar Village BUG E32°26'3.2994" N40°24'34.484" 1005 30 4-21 2-12.5 1-9 ex-situ honous
Çamlıdere-Elmalı Village ELM E32°28'31.692" N40°25'0.804" 1233 18 3-19.5 4-13.5 1.5-8.5 ex-situ authochthonous
Kızılcahamam-Soğuksu SOG E32°37'49.9404" N40°28'7.2948" 1052 6 1-11 2-8.5 1-6 ex-situ authochthonous

 

 

TABLE 2. A summary list of the genera in western and central GVP. The ages and tree compositions in both groups are different.

Site Genus
Western GVP  
KOZ Salix/Populus, Cedrus, Pinus, Acer, Ulmus, Quercus sect. Ilex
HOC Cedrus, Juniperus, Picea, Acer, Quercus sect. Ilex, Salix/Populus, Liquidambar, Palmae
KUZ Pinus
AGU Juniperus, Picea, Pinus, Fraxinus, Ulmus, Zelkova
KIR Salix/Populus, Picea, Acer, Ulmus, Quercus sect. Ilex, Zelkova
MEN Salix/Populus, Pinus, Acer, Prunus, Quercus sect. Ilex, Zelkova
KAR Quercus sect. Ilex
INL Cedrus, Acer, Quercus sect. Ilex
INO Cedrus, Sequoia
All Western GVP Cedrus, Juniperus, Picea, Pinus, Sequoia, Acer, Quercus sect. Ilex, Salix/Populus, Liquidambar, Palmae, Prunus, Ulmus, Zelkova
Central GVP  
PEL Sequoia, Taxodium
BUG Sequoia, Taxodium
GUD Glyptostrobus
SOG Sequoia
All Central GVP Glyptostrobus, Sequoia, Taxodium

 

 

TABLE 3. Taxonomic composition of the vegetation that grew across GVP during the early to middle Miocene. See Figure 1 for the site abbreviations and the site names. Data sources are: 1, Akkemik et al. (2016); 2, Akkemik et al. (2017); 3, Akkemik et al. (2009); 4, Kasaplıgil (1977); 5, Denk et al. (2017b); 6, Karayiğit et al. (1999); and 7, Yavuz-Işık (2008).

Area Western part of GVP
(Aquitanian-Burdigalian: 24.8-18 Ma)
Central part of GVP
(middle to late Burdigalian: 18.2-16.9 Ma)
Seben1 Kıbrısçık Beypazarı Güdül2 Çamlıdere3 Çamlıdere Kızılcahamam Kızılcahamam4,5,6,7
KOZ HOC KUZ* AGU* KIR* KAR* MEN* INL* INO* GUD PEL BUG* ELM* SOG* Güvem (Pollen and macrofossils)
Gymnosperms                              
Calocedrus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Cathaya - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Cedrus + + - - - - - + + - - - - - +
Glyptostrobus - - - - - - - - - + - - - - +
Juniperus - + - + - - - - - - - - - - -
Picea - + - + - - - - - - - - - - +
Pinus + - + + + - - - - - - - - - +
Podocarpus - - - - + - + - - - - - - - -
Sequoia - - - - - - - - + - + + - + +
Taxodium - - - - - - - - - - + + - - -
Angiosperms                              
Acer + + - - + - + + - - - - - - +
Ailanthus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Alnus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Berberis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Betula - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Carpinus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Carya - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Castanea - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Castanopsis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Celtis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Engelhardia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Fagus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Fraxinus - - - + - - - - - - - - - - +
Ilex - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Juglans - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Laurus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Liquidambar - + - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Magnolia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Mahonia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Myrica - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Palmae - + - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Platanus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Pterocaria - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Prunus - - - - - - + - - - - - - - +
Quercus
(section Ilex)
+ + - - + + + + - - - - - - +
Quercus (deciduous) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Salix/Populus + + - + + - + - - - - - - - +
Sorbus - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Tilia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
Ulmus + - - - + - - - - - - - - - +
Zelkova - - - + + - - - - - - - - - +