APPENDIX 1.

Measurements of anatomical features in conifer woods of early Miocene in GVP.

    In all conifer trees   In conifer trees with resin canal
Sample code and statistics Genus identified Tangential diameter of
tracheids in earlywood
(µm)
Radial diameter of
tracheids in earlywood
(µm)
Wall thickness of
tracheids in earlywood
(µm)
Tangential diameter
of tracheids in latewood
(µm)
Radial diameter
of tracheids in latewood
(µm)
Wall thickness
of tracheids in latewood
(µm)
Ray height (without
resin canal)
(µm)
Ray width (without
resin canal)
(µm)
  Ray height (with
resin canal)
(µm)
Ray width (with
resin canal)
µm)
Tangential diameter
of resin canal (µm)
Radial diameter
of resin canal (µm)
               
AGU04 Juniperus 17
(11-24)
16
(6-28)
6
(2-9)
11
(3-17)
8
(3-13)
7
(3-12)
53
(17-168)
10
(6-18)

 

- - - -
AGU05 Juniperus 13
(5-19)
12
(3-19)
4
(1-8)
10
(4-16)
4
(1-9)
5
(3-7)
40
(23-68)
8
(4-12)

 

- - - -
AGU09 Juniperus 15
(7-24)
14
(9-22)
6
(3-8)
8
(2-16)
3
(1-6)
5
(3-11)
48
(11-92)
9
(6-11)
  - - - -
AGU11 Juniperus 15
(6-25)
18
(10-25)
4
(1-7)
9
(3-16)
4
(1-7)
6
(3-9)
43
(9-95)
7
(4-11)
  - - - -
AGUD3 Juniperus 14
(9-22)
16
(10-24)
4
(2-6)
8
(4-12)
3
(1-7)
6
(4-10)
48
(10-198)
7
(4-11)
  - - - -
AGUD07 Juniperus 13
(6-17)
15
(10-19)
3
(1-6)
10
(3-16)
5
(2-7)
5
(2-7)
37
(9-70)
9
(6-3)
  - - - -
AGUD8 Juniperus 17
(11-21)
18
(11-25)
3
(1-8)
12
(4-17)
6
(3-11)
7
(5-11)
52
(18-226)
8
(4-18)
  - - - -
AGUD10 Juniperus 13
(8-19)
15
(10-22)
5
(2-9)
7
(2-12)
4
(1-8)
5
(3-10)
35
(14-88)
9
(6-11)
  - - - -
Mean
(Range)
  15
(5-25)
16
(3-28)
4
(1-9)
9
(2-17)
5
(1-13)
6
(2-12)
45
(9-226)
8
(4-18)
  - - - -
INO04 Sequoia 18
(11-25)
24
(14-31)
5
(3-9)
11
(5-18)
7
(3-11)
10
(5-16)
104
(37-226)
14
(8-19)
  - - - -
BUG20 Sequoia 32
(24-42)
33
(21-42)
2
(1-3)
27
(18-38)
19
(11-27)
3
(2-4)
248
(154-437)
10
(5-15)
  - - - -
SOG04 Sequoia 30
(18-41)
31
(24-44)
3
(1-5)
13
(6-22)
4
(1-15)
13
(10-18)
171
(28-413)
15
(8-27)
  - - - -
Mean (Range)   26
(11-42)
29
(14-44)
3
(1-9)
17
(5-38)
10
(1-27)
9
(1-18)
174
(28-437)
13
(6-27)
  - - - -
BUG01 Taxodium 39
(26-53)
50
(33-63)
3
(1-5)
31
(19-50)
27
(20-37)
2
(1-4)
422
(303-569)
18
(6-27)
  - - - -
INL03 Cedrus 20
(14-34)
25
(18-37)
5
(2-8)
15
(7-22)
8
(5-14)
8
(5-11)
188
(27-517)
9
(4-15)
  - - - -
INO05 Cedrus 23
(6-38)
38
(26-52)
4
(1-8)
9
(4-15)
7
(2-14)
14
(6-21)
263
(49-1004)
13
(9-17)
  - - - -
INO06 Cedrus 21
(9-37)
26
(15-42)
5
(3-9)
14
(4-26)
6
(1-15)
13
(6-20)
194
(52-531)
13
(4-31)
  - - - -
KIR39 Cedrus 24
(14-33)
31
(18-40)
2
(1-3)
15
(8-20)
21
(11-33)
3
(1-6)
318
(133-747)
26
(9-50)
  - - - -
Mean (Range)   21
(6-38)
30
(15-52)
5
(1-9)
13
(4-26)
7
(1-15)
12
(5-21)
215
(27-1004)
12
(4-31)
  - - - -
AGUD02 Picea 16
(10-24)
15
(9-20)
2
(1-3)
10
(4-16)
11
(7-18)
5
(3-9)
90
(28-153)
14
(7-20)
  240
(128-334)
45
(43-48)
155
(126-192)
163
(135-193)
KUZ20 Picea 17
(8-26)
33
(15-54)
3
(1-6)
5
(4-10)
3
(1-6)
5
(2-8)
197
(131-383)
10
(6-14)
  356
(328-405)
42
(38-48)
103
(75-132)
119
(112-125)
Mean (Range)   17
(8-26)
24
(9-54)
3
(1-6)
8
(4-16)
7
(1-18)
5
(2-9)
144
(28-353)
12
(6-20)
  298
(28-405)
44
(38-48)
129
(75-192)
141
(112-193)
AGU01 Pinus 21
(11-33)
19
(14-28)
8
(5-15)
11
(3-24)
6
(2-13)
7
(4-13)
168
(33-364)
20
(16-30)
  445
(424-467)
49
(45-53)
149
(147-151)
154
(147-160)
AGU22 Pinus 25
(7-46)
32
(16-51)
2
(1-6)
9
(4-16)
8
(3-14)
8
(5-11)
120
(46-237)
13
(8-17)
  220
(196-243)
29
(24-34)
108
(83-141)
116
(92-160)
AGU23 Pinus 20
(11-37)
17
(9-25)
2
(1-5)
13
(5-23)
9
(5-14)
3
(1-5)
150
(39-351)
14
(11-16)
  280
(212-347)
40
(38-42)
80
(74-84)
73
(61-104)
AGUD12 Pinus 22
(13-31)
20
(11-26)
5
(1-8)
7
(1-16)
5
(1-13)
9
(5-13)
152
(82-369)
13
(7-21)
  290
(208-413)
41
(38-45)
131
(69-180)
142
(115-173)
INO12 Pinus 17
(9-27)
25
(15-38)
4
(2-6)
9
(3-18)
11
(6-17)
6
(3-8)
105
(29-287)
11
(4-21)
  204
(83-322)
27
(13-38)
69
(41-93)
176
(142-202)
KIR21 Pinus 24
(12-34)
27
(13-39)
3
(1-5)
8
(4-16)
4
(1-6)
5
(3-11)
131
(32-371)
13
(4-30)
  N/A N/A 177
(137-253)
115
(99-133)
KUZ01 Pinus 25
(12-36)
38
(18-52)
4
(1-7)
7
(1-4)
5
(1-8)
7
(3-12)
181
(62-375)
10
(5-17)
  382
(271-501)
44
(36-58)
177
(128-213)
99
(81-124)
KUZ07 Pinus 26
(6-39)
33
(16-54)
6
(4-8)
9
(1-27)
6
(1-12)
7
(5-9)
180
|(102-425)
18
(11-26)
  298
(273-310)
53
(47-67)
226
(218-236)
272
(252-295)
KUZ09 Pinus 23
(6-36)
36
(17-52)
3
(1-6)
8
(3-13)
6
(1-10)
7
(4-14)
142
(86-198)
13
(6-21)
  236
(170-283)
30
(28-35)
110
(109-111)
120
(119-120)
KUZ17 Pinus 25
(15-38)
35
(23-48)
3
(1-5)
7
(3-12)
5
(1-11)
4
(2-10)
132
(47-287)
14
(5-24)
  350
(320-394)
44
(40-47)
149
(49-354)
N/A
MEN32 Pinus 14
(8-25)
22
(14-29)
4
(2-6)
11
(6-16)
10
(6-18)
3
(2-4)
123
(64-220)
15
(10-20)
  300
(196-403)
55
(48-61)
85
(74-93)
105
(94-117)
MEN33 Pinus 39
(26-59)
44
(32-55)
7
(3-15)
23
(13-38)
14
(8-22)
11
(6-19)
N/A N/A   N/A N/A 194
(130-274)
159
(122-205)
Mean (Range)   25
(6-59)
29
(9-55)
4
(1-15)
10
(1-38)
7
(1-22)
6
(1-19)
144
(29-425)
14
(4-30)
  301
(83-501)
41
(13-67)
138
(41-354)
139
(61-295)
MEN19 Podocarpus 29
(13-40)
32
(19-45)
3
(1-5)
12
(8-19)
5
(1-10)
7
(4-12)
88
(22-232)
10
(5-16)
  - - - -
KIR40 Podocarpus N/A N/A N/A 15
(8-22)
8
(3-15)
N/A N/A N/A   - - - -
KIR70 Podocarpus 17
(5-25)
18
(10-27)
N/A 15
(10-21)
8
(5-11)
N/A 76
(39-132)
10
(5-15)
  - - - -
KIR73 Podocarpus 20
(10-29)
20
(15-26)
2
(1-3)
12
(7-20)
6
(3-10)
2
(1-3)
120
(41-347)
11
(4-18)
  - - - -
Mean (Range)   22
(5-40)
23
(10-45)
3
(1-5)
14
(7-22)
7
(1-15)
5
(1-12)
95
(22-347)
10
(4-18)
  - - - -

APPENDIX 2.

Measurements of anatomical features in broad-leaved tree woods of early Miocene in GVP.

    In diffuse porous trees In ring porous trees In all trees In ring porous trees In trees having two types of rays In all identified trees
Sample code and statistics Genus identified Tangential diameter
of vessels (µm)
Radial diameter
of vessels (µm)
Tangential diameter of
vessels in earlywood (µm)
Radial diameter of vessels
in earlywood (µm)
Tangential diameter of
vessels in latewood (µm)
Radial diameter of
vessels in latewood (µm)
Vessel frequency
per mm2
Vessel frequency
per ½ mm2 in earlywood
Vessel frequency
per ½ mm2 in latewood
Heights of tall rays (µm) Widths of tall rays (µm) Heights of
normal rays (µm)
Widths of normal rays
(µm)
               
INL09 Quercus sect. Ilex 88
(30-182)
103
(53-206)
- - - - 26
(22-29)
- - >1 mm 249
(122-376)
371
(162-805)
16
(7-22)
KAR01 Quercus sect. Ilex 118
(86-139)
130 (82-163) - - - - - - - >1 mm 251
(249-253)
162
(110-233)
10
(4-15)
KIR07 Quercus sect. Ilex 72
(34-108)
109 (63-154) - - - - 17
(13-22)
- - >1 mm 242
(215-280)
N/A N/A
KIR44 Quercus sect. Ilex 48
(32-67)
54
(33-79)
- - - - 31
(28-34)
- - >1 mm 396
(183-587)
130
(52-331)
10
(5-14)
MEN02 Quercus sect. Ilex 76
(48-100)
104
(66-150)
- - - - - - - >1 mm 345
(317-373)
163
(76-319)
13
(6-26)
MEN22 Quercus sect. Ilex 64
(22-134)
94
(33-182)
- - - - 20
(17-22)
- - >1 mm 107
(67-170)
N/A N/A
MEN28 Quercus sect. Ilex 76
(43-149)
116
(42-183)
- - - - 24
(20-28)
- - >1 mm 352
(236-411)
218
(128-395)
16
(13-19)
Mean (Range)   82
(22-182)
109
(33-206)
- - - - 22
(13-29)
- - >1 mm 258
(67-411)
334
(110-865)
14
(4-26)
AGU13 Fraxinus - - 69
(26-116)
90
(33-130)
27
(13-46)
24
(11-52)
83
(67-104)
26
(23-32)
57
(44-72)
- - 216
(58-345)
23
(11-38)
MEN31 Prunus - - 55
(32-75)
82
(33-136)
22
(8-43)
30
(15-50)
67
(55-78)
40
(37-42)
27
(18-36)
>1 mm 66
(51-78)
117
(67-156)
7
(4-11)
AGU17 Salix 42
(20-83)
49
(17-111)
- - - - 182
(148-215)
- - - - 167
(88-329)
5
(4-7)
KIR34 Salix N/A N/A - - - - N/A - - - - N/A N/A
KIR59 Salix 104
(56-165)
134
(69-193)
- - - - 108
(81-136)
- - - - 529
(211-994)
14
(7-23)
MEN30 Salix 37
(26-56)
43
(19-71)
- - - - 232
(214-252)
- - - - 232
(92-493)
8
(4-15)
MEN34 Salix 64
(43-88)
73
(37-104)
- - - - 110
(92-144)
- - - - 160
(51-282)
12
(8-20)
Mean (Range)   62
(20-165)
75
(17-193)
- - - - 158
(81-252)
- - - - 272
(51-994)
10
(4-23)
INL02 Acer 29
(15-47)
31
(17-43)
- - - - 316
(256-343)
- - - - 308
(18-656)
23
(4-29)
INL06 Acer 32
(11-51)
38
(14-61)
- - - - 214
(181-237)
- - - - 239
(81-429)
24
(9-48)
KIR02 Acer N/A N/A - - - - - - - - - 163
(45-378)
13
(4-26)
KIR13 Acer 33
(19-57)
41
(18-72)
- - - - 187
(168-231)
- - - - 291
(133-579)
44
(20-78)
KIR51 Acer 61
(31-140)
80
(40-150)
- - - - N/A - - - - 123
(70-221)
20
(6-31)
KIR52 Acer 103
(56-158)
111
(59-181)
- - - - 105
92-124
- - - - 177
(79-318)
21
(10-46)
MEN29 Acer 73
(51-108)
96
(41-133)
- - - - - - - - - 239
(85-477)
32
(23-43)
Mean (Range)   55
(11-158)
66
(14-181)
- - - - 206
(92-343)
- - - - 220
(18-656)
25
(4-78)
KIR14 Ulmus - - 58
(29-95)
85
(50-144)
14
(4-32)
37
(27-46)
214
(154-258)
12
(9-14)
202
(145-244)
- - 258
(120-432)
37
(13-63)
KIR65 Ulmus - - 82
(52-117)
114
(82-169)
27
(17-37)
33
(20-46)
166
(140-214)
9
(8-9)
157
(132-205)
- - 260
(121-445)
31
(17-56)
Mean (Range)   - - 70
(29-117)
100
(50-169)
21
(4-37)
35
(20-46)
191
(140-258)
11
(8-14)
180
(132-244)
- - 259
(120-445)
34
(13-63)
AGU15 Zelkova - - 62
(23-142)
108
(55-167)
10
(6-17)
18
(6-42)
338
(280-399)
28
(20-36)
310
(260-363)
416
(213-854)
47
(43-68)
191
(125-256)
17
(8-28)
AGU28 Zelkova - - 67
(26-107)
109
(61-178)
19
(9-36)
18
(11-30)
- 20
(17-24)
- 420
(186-681)
43
(31-59)
149
(63-289)
15
(10-21)
KIR01 Zelkova - - 98
(58-137)
138
(83-182)
21
(13-32)
21
(8-34)
314
(259-372)
16
(13-18)
298
(246-354)
300
(80-482)
32
(22-44)
144
(113-204)
11
(6-15)
Mean (Range)   - - 76
(23-142)
118
(55-182)
17
(6-36)
19
(6-42)
325
(259-399)
21
(13-36)
304
(246-363)
379
(80-854)
41
(22-68)
213
(63-482)
14
(6-28)