APPENDIX 1

Data matrix to “Taxonomy and phylogeny of Eosemionotus Stolley, 1920 (Neopterygii: Ginglymodi) from the Middle Triassic of Europe”

A nexus file including the complete data matrix is freely available in the MorphoBank (www.morphobank.org; Project 3211). The character matrix was compiled with the software Mesquite version 3.2 (Maddison and Maddison, 2017). Accordingly, the symbols 0 - 9 and A - H have been used for those multistate characters with more than 10 different states. Polymorphisms (e.g., state 0 and 2) are indicated by 0&2 in the nexus file available in Morphobank, but by “(0/2)” in this text file. A question mark “?” is used for completely unknown states and the dash symbol “-“ indicates that a character is inapplicable to that taxon.

Watsonulus eugnathoides

10010??0--0001000?100011000001100?1000100210100000?012011001?0001200300008020---020-------0001010112110100000000001--00000?2?0101010000?00????01?0?0?20???0B???????00?000?1??2113000000-0005???0

Amia calva

300------0110110111000120010-10000100010-21022000210010010002101----1003(0/1)2020---021-------11010100131001000000000020-0000121111011101000022010132020021-20-F20172113301-000001011011000-0004????

Araripelepidotes temnurus

20110120-121210?110000?3?????????2000??0?2???01004?001000051?0?012134002111010?00?02000000??0221000100-?????1---??---000004121100?02130?00?????322?100022201???3??0212021101???0??00000??00?3131

Atractosteus spatula

40011110-02110-1111-112211--11101401111401033220040100110141011012114112031013011203020000111-------002111101100043011000000300-0902100112211013232100022204200520011002200112106000110-200-???0

Callipurbeckia minor

000201211?2?????????0?1?100?0????10000030?04??0004??021101513100110030001700122003010010-01101432001110110?00001??21-00000113110?501000????????3?1?1010120070004?102?202110102?14?000000-0032233

Camerichthys lunae

00?1???10??????????????????????????00??1???????????????101????001201?0?2170013210303100010??01430?01?101?0???0012?20-0-010?110100?0?????????????????????????????????????????????????000??00?????

Cuneatus cuneatus

40000??0-?211??111??112211--10-0140111130103??1004??030101410110121140?2031211011?03020000111-------?0211??2?0000?3011?0010?200-090?????12?1??1323?100022201??02???111022?0??????100110-200-???2

Cuneatus wileyi

4000???0-?211??11?1??12211--10-01?011??30103??1004??03010141?110121140?2031211011?03020000111-------?02111????????3011??????200-090?????12?1??132??1000?22?2??04???110022?0?021??100110??00-???2

Dentilepisosteus laevis

11211110-02120-011-1111211--1110?30101040103?220041?001101???10011013101141214?10?0?0?00001102412001?001?0000010?031100001312011080??0???221?1?3233100022203???4?????2022000?2????001100-00-???2

Histionotus oberndorferi

3001???0-??????????0?1??1???0????11000040?0???011-??121201???1000000?000??041??0051-------??0141200?00?1?0?00000??20-0?100?11111???113100?????0321???000??0C3?03???00?0211?????????00012-01????2

Isanichthys lertboosi

0000?12100210??111000??????????????00??1??????0003??00000111310012114002130011100?031000101101312001113??0?010001?20-000004???10060?000000?-???12???000?2208???????1??02110??2????00000??00????1

Isanichthys palustris

0000?????0?????????0???????????????00??1??????1004??000001???10012114002130?11?00?03120000??0121300111???0??0000??20-0000001?1100?0?????0???????????????????????????????????????????000??00????1

Kyphosichthys grandei

000101110?????????00????002?-??????00??10?0???0014??0000005??010010030?0111011000302001100??0131010310?0-??20000??20-01000011110051?031?0?????01?0??02002207?111?1100?0?1101?2115?00000??0015333

Lepidotes gigas

00111120-0210110110000?210210??101100??1030???0004??(0/1)001011130001211400113001211030310100011013100011101000000011?20-00000412110?60100??0?????2120?1?00222020??30?11120212010??14?00000??0055203

Lepisosteus osseus

40000110-02110-11100112211--111014011114010332(1/2)0040100110141011012114012031012011203020000111-------?02111100100003011000100200-0902100112211113233100022204210620011002200112106000110-200-???0

Macrosemimimus fegerti

00120120-?????????0000??10??0??1?1?000020304?00014??001101?1?0000(1/2)00300??70-132003010010-0110143?00111011000?0?2(2/3)(1/2)21-00000413110040100010?????0331?2?00122050?050?020202110102114?000000-0022123

Macrosemius rostratus

301100---?21010110?0?1?210010??0?1100004130??2011-??021201213101----300017041300051-------200141000?0001100000003320-011004111111400131-010???1321?1000023?E20022003?11211000??1?1110002-011????

Masillosteus janeae

10001120-0??????1?1-?1?????????0?3010??30?03??1004??01010141?11012114112031214310503020000111-------002111?2-010223011000000200-0?0??0??1221??1323?1?00-22022?032?011102200112106100110??00-????

Masillosteus kelleri

1000???0-?????????1-????????????????0??30?0???1004??0101014?211012114012031215310503020000111-------00211??2-010223011100140?00-090?????1221??1323?1?00-2202??02??011102200????05100110??00-???2

Neosemionotus puntanus

0010???11?????????00???????????0???00???03???32004??00000051??00121040?114021111030200(0/10)00120121000??1????000000?020-0000041?111?50?00000?????2120?1?001001501140??2221211?1121??110000??0040053

Notagogus denticulatos

301100-0-??????????0?1?????????????00?????????0??????21201???100?????000??041??0051-------??0141200?00???0?00000??20-011004??1111?0???????????0321?1?00?0??D3??02??3????????????????000??0118553

Obaichthys decorates

11210110-?2120-?11-111?211--110??30101040103?2200401001101???1001?0-3101170015-10?010000-01?02410001?021100?00100?31100001312111080?????1221???32??1?00???05???5???110022001?-?-??001100-00????0

Occitanichthys canjuersensis

000101210?????????1000???????????1000003030???0004??000101513100?10030001-0014200?020000001101430001110110???0022221-000001131101?010?0?0??????3?1?2?10?0?06??01?1?20?02110102114?000000-00?23?3

Paralepidotus ornatus

30010110-??????????????????????0?10000030?????0004??021201????00000030???0021???0?00--10-0??0????????????????0??3?21-00000?12110?30??????0?-??0130?2?201220?2??8???0?????????211??000000-01?2112

Pliodetes nigeriensis

20210110-?????????0????????????0???00????3????1004??010000113?10121140?10300110103030200001202410????041??001010?030000001311010?70?1?????00???????????????2?0?2?1?1??021??1?21???00100??0037??3

Propterus elongatus

301100-0-??????????0?1??10??0??0???000?1030???011-??02120121?1000100300017041300051-------2?0141200?00???0000000?020-00100411111140?13000???0?0322?10200231E31012?033200110??211?0100002?0112213

Sangiorgioichthys aldae

000200-10?????????0????????????????00??2?30???0004??00110052??00020030?0110310--0?031(0/1)0101??013100021120-0?01010??20-00000011110130?0?0?0?????????????00????0??5???0??000?01?211310?000??00??2?3

Sangiorgioichthys sui

000100-10?????????0????????????001100001030??100(0/1)4??000000513?00020030?011(0/1)210--030(2/3)1010011?012100021120-0000000??20-01000011110130003110?????0130?0020000060?150?1002000?010211?1000000-0012223

Sangiorgioichthys valmarensis

2001???10??????????????????????????00?????????000???001100????000(1/2)0030?0?103????0??3100001??0??10002?????0??0010??20-000000111??1?0?0?0?0??????1??????00???????????0??000?01?211?10?000??00????3

Scheenstia mantelli

00011120-0210??0110000?210210???0??000?2?3???02004??0(0/2)(0/1)101????0012114001130013?10?03100010110243?0011101?0???0123?20-000001111100?0?000??1???????0???0020?0????????1??021201?2?14?0?000??00????3

Scheenstia maximus

000111210??????????????????????1????0??1??????2004??????01????00121040?2130013?10?03100010????????????????00?0133320-00000111110??????????????1??0???0020?082?032?011?021201?2????00000??00-0222

Scheenstia zappi

0001???10????????????0??????????0??00???0?0???2004??000101113100121030?1130213?10303100010110????????101?0?0?0022?20-0001011?010??0100010?????21?0???00200060?15???0010212011??15??0000??00?1533

Semiolepis brembanus

000(0/1)01111??????????????????????????00??30?????2004??02110111??00000030?0?10012000300--10-0??0141000??1??????00??2?21-00000412111?20???????????2130?2?201?0070??3???002???????211??00000??00?34?3

Semionotus bergeri

000101111?????????10???????????????00??3??0???0003??001101???10011003000270012000?00--10-01?0???????????????0010??20-000000111100?0?0?000?????03?1??000???090??2???2?102??0??211??00000??00?3343

Semionotus capensis

00??01111?????????10????????????01?00003030???1003??00110151?10001003000070212?00300--10-0110????????1?????0?010??20-000000111100?0?0?0?0?????0321??0001000E01030??220021?0??2????000000-0033343

Semionotus elegans

00100??111200111??10??1?102??13001?0000202041000031010110151310011003000060011000300--10-0110241?0011101000000100020-0000041111004010?0000?-0?032131?00?000701?5?1?20?021?0?0211?0000000-0043123

Thaiichthys buddhabutrensis

00?0?12100?10??011000?1?0???-??????00??20?0?1?2003??01000111311012114002111012?00?010010-0110241000101???0110010??301000004121110602000000?????120?1000?22060107??0002021?0??21?4100000??00????2

Ticinolepis crassidens

000000-0-00????0000000??1000?????1-0000200????000???120??0003?0001003000250211000303120000??0131000311???0?200023320-00000011110150?????0?????0210?012012207???3???0000000111211??000000-(0/1)0?3003

Ticinolepis longaeva

000100-0-0????????00??1?10???0-001100??200011100011012001000300002003000(0/1)5021100030312000000013100031101000200011120-00000011110150110??0?????0110?0120122090?110?100200001102114100000??0020003

Tlayuamichin itztli

000201210?????????10???11????0-0?1000004030???(1/2)004??00110151?100000230002700162003020001001101430001110110021002?221-01000113110150?03010??????331?2?001??07??02???212021101?2?14?0000?0-00?4223

Eosemionotus vogeli

001000-0-?????????0??0220????0-?????0??213???200010010030022?101----????????????0?1-------2001410001010??0001010?030001001411111050?01?-??????232(1/2)?1002022?40??20??001020?0??00?11?0001??1006554

Eosemionotus ceresiensis

001000-0-?????????0??03?????????????0??313????2003??10030022?101----????????????0?1-------2001410001010??0000010?0300010014??111040?01?-??????232(0/1)?1002002000??10??001020?0??00?11?0001??1127464

Eosemionotus diskosomus

001000-0-?????????0??032?0010???01000003130??220020010030022?101----????????12??0?1-------2001430001010??00010100030001000411111070?1??-??????2322?1002002030??20??001020?0??10?11?00011-1108575

Eosemionotus sceltrichi

001000-0-?????????0??0?2?0010???????0002130???101???---3--???101----????????1???0?1-------2001430001010??000101000300010014??011060?11?-??????2321?1002020010??20??001020?0??00?11?00011-1108475

Eosemionotus minutus

1010???0-?????????0??0??????????????0??213????2003??10?300???101----????????????0?1-------2001410001010??000?010?0300010004??111070?0??-??????2321?1002020-00??00??00102??0??10?11?0001??1028675

Macrosemius furneti

300100---????????????1??????0??????00004?3??????????021201?13101----??????0413?00?1-------2?014100010????0000000??20-01?000111111600131-??????1321?10000230E20022003?112110000?1?111000?-0?1?4?2

Paleomacrosemius thiollieri

301100---????????????1??????0??????00004?3??????????021201?13101----??????0?????0?1-------??014100010????0000000??20-01?004111111?00131-??????1321?1000023?E20022003?112110000?1?111000?-0????62

Lophionotus sanjuanensis

000101111?????????00???????????????00???03????0001&2??000000????1012003000101012010300--10--120141?00??10???0?000???20000000411111??0?0??00?????23??????010??90??20??20?020201?0?0??00000??0020313

Lophionotus chinleana

00110??11?????????00????????????????0??20?0???0003??000000????1012003000?11?1??10?00--10--110241?00??1????0?000???3000000041?111?50?0??00????????1????0????50?040??22?020010?0??2?00000??00????3

Lophionotus kanabensis

00110??11?????????00????????????01?00??20?????0003???00101????001???000???1?1???0?00--10--120?41?00?112???0?101???2??00000411110?50?0??0??????????????0????50?020??22?02????????????000??013????

REFERENCES

Maddison, W.P. and Maddison, D.R. 2017. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 3.31 http://mesquiteproject.org.

APPENDIX 2

List of phenotypic characters to “Taxonomy and phylogeny of Eosemionotus Stolley, 1920 (Neopterygii: Ginglymodi) from the Middle Triassic of Europe”

The 192 characters listed below have been used for the cladistic analysis to explore the phylogenetic relationships of the Middle Triassic genus † Eosemionotus. Characters 1-180 are taken from López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018). Among them, characters characters 39, 49, 56, 59, 91,130, 151, 154, 156, and 160 have been modified. Characters 181-182 are taken from López-Arbarello (2012) and characters 183 to 192 are new. The corresponding character number in our source literature is indicated in brackets with the following initials: LA, López-Arbarello (2012); LAS, López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018).

As explained in López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018), autapomorphic character states are not deleted because such states, though not informative for the tree search, are informative concerning the amount of homoplasy.

General features of the body and squamation

1. Relative position of the dorsal fin respect to the pelvic and anal fins (LAS1)

(0) originating posterior to insertion of pelvic and extending backwards not beyond middle of anal fin

(1) originating approximately at the level of the origin of the anal fin and extending opposite to it

(2) extending anterior to opposite of insertion of pelvic fins

(3) originating anterior to insertion of pelvic and extending opposite to anal fins

(4) originating posterior to the origin of anal fin

(5) originating posterior to insertion of pelvic and extending backwards up to end of anal fin

2. Elongation of the rostral region anterior to the lower jaw symphysis (LAS2)

(0) does not extend anterior to the dentary symphysis significantly

(1) extends well anterior to the dentary symphysis by more than 50% of mandibular length

3. Ornamentation of the dermal bones of the skull (LAS3)

(0) ornamented with tubercles or ridges

(1) smooth or very slightly ornamented

(2) ornamented with sharp tubercles resembling conical teeth

4. Posterior margin of ganoid anterior flank scales (LAS6)

(0) Smooth

(1) serrate or dentate

(2) spiny, with a few small spines

5. Vertical peg-and-socket articulation (LAS7)

(0) well developed

(1) reduced

6. Longitudinal articulation of the scales of the body (LAS8)

(0) absent

(1) present

7. Mode of longitudinal articulation of the scales (LAS9)

(0) small anterodorsal process

(1) strong anterior dorsal process

(2) double, anterior dorsal and ventral processes

8. Dorsal ridge of scales between the skull and the dorsal fin (LAS11)

(0) absent

(1) present

9. Shape of the dorsal ridge scales (LAS12)

(0) with a low spine

(1) with a high spine

Endocranium, parasphenoid and vomer

10. Development of posterior process of epioccipital (LAS22)

(0) small

(1) large

11. Exit of the vagus nerve (X) placed (LAS24)

(0) through the fissura otico-occipitalis

(1) between intercalar and exoccipital

(2) in exoccipital

(3) between intercalar and opisthotic

12. Posterior extent of exoccipitals in adult-sized individuals (LAS25)

(0) reach posterior margin of occiput

(1) do not reach posterior margin of occiput

13. Exoccipital position relative to basioccipital (LAS28)

(0) dorsal

(1) anterodorsal

(2) anterior

14. Posterior myodome (LAS30)

(0) absent

(1) present

15. Relative size of posterior myodome (LAS31)

(0) not extending into basioccipital

(1) extending into basioccipital

16. Intercalar (LAS33)

(0) present

(1) absent

17. Opisthotic (LAS36)

(0) present

(1) absent

18. Pterotic (LAS37)

(0) present

(1) absent

19. Sphenotic with small dermal component (LAS41)

(0) absent

(1) present

20. Sphenotic fused to dermosphenotic (LAS42)

(0) absent, the two bones are separate

(1) present

21. Basisphenoid (LAS43)

(0) present

(1) absent

22. Lateral ethmoid ossifications (LAS46)

(0) present

(1) absent

23. Width of parasphenoid anterior to the ascending processes (LAS49)

(0) the parasphenoid narrows towards its anterior end, but it is equally broad directly anterior and posterior to the ascending processes

(1) approximately uniformly broad, as wide or wider than posterior to the processes

(2) distinctly narrower than posterior to the processes

(3) the parasphenoid bar narrows directly in front of the ascending processes, but it broadens distinctly anteriorly

24. Posterior extent of parasphenoid (LAS50)

(0) short, does not extend beyond the fissura oticalis-ventralis

(1) short, but extending beyond the fissura oticalis-ventralis

(2) long, reaching the occipital condyle or close to it

(3) very long, extending posterior to the occipital condyle

25. Basipterygoid processes of parasphenoid (LAS51)

(0) almost or totally absent

(1) well developed

26. Ascending processes of parasphenoid (LAS52)

(0) present

(1) absent

27. Orientation of the ascending processes of parasphenoid (LAS53)

(0) extend perpendicularly

(1) extend anteriorly

(2) extend posteriorly

28. Extent of the ascending processes of parasphenoid (LAS54)

(0) high, reaching the sphenotic

(1) low, sutured to the prootic only

29. Laterally sliding articulation between the metapterygoid and the parasphenoid basipterygoid process in adults (LAS55)

(0) absent

(1) present

30. Parasphenoid tooth patch (LAS56)

(0) absent

(1) present

31. Extent of parasphenoid tooth patch (LAS57)

(0) extends anterior and posterior to the ascending processes

(1) extends only anterior to the ascending processes

(2) extends only posterior to the ascending processes

(3) limited to the area between the ascending processes

32. Vomer in adults (LAS59)

(0) pair

(1) co-ossified

Palatoquadrate

33. Autopalatine bone (LAS60)

(0) present

(1) absent

34. Shape of ectopterygoid (LAS62)

(0) elongate, triangular, straight ventral border, deepest mid length

(1) approximately crescent shape, convex dorsally, concave ventrally

(2) approximately boomerang shape

(3) approximately triangular, deepest posteriorly, tapering anteriorly

(4) elongate, with bar-like anterior portion and deeply expanded posterior portion

(5) bar-like

35. Marginal row of teeth on ectopterygoid (LAS63)

(0) absent

(1) present

36. Ectopterygoid participation in palatal surface area (LAS64)

(0) ectopterygoid forms half or less of the palatal region

(1) ectopterygoid forms most of the palatal region

37. Part of dorsal surface of ectopterygoid ornamented and forming part of skull roof (LAS65)

(0) absent

(1) present

38. Metapterygoid/quadrate relationship (LAS67)

(0) metapterygoid sutured or closely associated with the quadrate

(1) ectopterygoid separating metapterygoid from quadrate

39. Metapterygoid/ectopterygoid contact (LAS68)

(0) absent

(1) present

Character 68 of López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018) distinguishes three different modes in which the metapterygoid might be in contact with the ectopterygoid (states 1-3), but it considers only one way in which these bones might be separated by the endopterygoid (state 0). The metapterygoid in Eosemionotus is well separated from the ectopterygoid, but not by a large endopterygoid. Instead, there is a large quadrate or an extensive palatoquadrate chondral ossification, corresponding mainly to the quadrate, separating those two bones in this genus.

In macrosemiids (scored with question marks in López-Arbarello and Sferco, 2018), the endopterygoid does not extend backwards separating the meta- and ectopterygoid bones. In this case however, the quadrate is small and the meta- and ectopterygoid are separated by calcified cartilage or some kind of ossification, which still needs to be studied in detail.

In the light of these new observations, it was necessary to modified character 68 of López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018) to code for the presence or absence of contact between the meta- and ectopterygoid bones, and to add two new characters (184 and 185) to code for the three different ways in which these bones might be separated or in contact, respectively.

40. Relative position of the lower jaw articulation at the level of (LAS69)

(0) posterior to the orbit

(1) around the posterior border of the orbit

(2) around the centre of the orbit

(3) around the anterior border of the orbit

(4) in front of the orbit

41. Quadratojugal fused to quadrate (LAS71)

(0) absent

(1) present

Hyoid arch

42. Shape of anterior ceratohyal (LAS81)

(0) deep, subrectangular

(1) elongate hourglass shape

(2) narrow anteriorly, more expansive and laterally compressed posteriorly

(3) deeply hourglass shape without Beryciform foramen

(4) deeply hourglass shape with Beryciform foramen

43. Symplectic relationship to lower jaw (LAS83)

(0) is not directly involved in the jaw joint

(1) participates directly in the jaw joint

44. Relation between symplectic and quadrate (LAS84)

(0) symplectic posteroventral to quadrate, the two bones are separate

(1) symplectic articulates with the inner, medial surface of quadrate

(2) symplectic attached into a groove formed by the posteroventral border of the quadrate

(3) symplectic posterodorsal and well separate from quadrate

(4) symplectic attached between the quadrate and quadratojugal

45. Shape of symplectic (LAS85)

(0) slightly curved tube or splint

(1) bar-like shaped

(2) hatchet shaped

(3) L-shaped

46. Shape of hyomandibula (LAS89)

(0) rod like

(1) hourglass shaped, with a constriction between the shaft and the articular head

(2) shaft approximately as broad as hyomandibular head

(3) shaft notably narrower than hyomandibular head

Dermal braincase

47. Number of extrascapular bones (LAS90)

(0) one pair

(1) two pairs

(2) more than four extrascapulars

48. Shape of the extrascapular bone/s (LAS91)

(0) plate like, quadrangular to triangular

(1) tubular

(2) semicircular, expanded caudolaterally

(3) expanded rostrally

49. Posterior extension of parietals median to the extrascapular bones (LAS92)

(0) absent

(1) present

We have changed the enunciation of this character deleting “the single pair of laterally placed” from the definition in López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018). As defined by these authors, the character is too specific for the condition in macrosemiids, which have a single pair of extrascapulars. In Eosemionotus sceltrichi the parietal extends medially to two extrascapulars on each side of the head.

50. Dermopterotic (or pterotic) exposed surface extending anterior to parietal (LAS93)

(0) by more than 50% of its total length

(1) by more than 40% but less than 50% of its total length

(2) by more than 30% but less than 40% of its total length

(3) by less than 30% of its total length

(4) not extending anterior to parietal

51. Dermopterotic descending lamina (LAS96)

(0) absent

(1) present

52. Dermopterotic posterior projection(s) (LAS97)

(0) absent

(1) present and simple

(2) present, one or more, and notably large

53. Parietal width to length ratio (LAS99)

(0) not exceeding 0.90

(1) well exceeding 0.90

54. Relative length of parietals respect to the length of the frontals (LAS100)

(0) less than one half but more than one third the length of frontals

(1) about half the length of frontals

(2) less than one third the length of frontals

(3) more than half the length of frontals

55. Length to width ratio of frontals in adult sized individuals (LAS101)

(0) lower than three

(1) equal or larger than three

56. Anterior portion of frontals (LAS102)

(0) subrectangular not significantly narrower anteriorly than posteriorly

(1) tapering gradually

(2) projected in the form of long tubular extensions

(3) projected in the form of small processes

López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018) include the shape of the most anterior portion of the frontal bones and the depth of the interorbital constriction in a single character. We now separated these two features, which do not show any biological dependence. Consequently, we limit characer 102 to the shape of the most anterior portion of the frontals and added a new characrer state representing the condition in Eosemionotus (frontals projected in the form of small processes). The presence of a deep interorbital constriction is coded as a character (ch. 187).

57. Postorbital portion of frontal (LAS103)

(0) not significantly large

(1) large, more than 1/3 of total length of frontal

58. Preorbital portion of frontal (LAS104)

(0) not significantly large

(1) large, more than 1/3 of total length of frontal

59. Shape of nasal bones (LAS106)

(0) broad, approximately rectangular to oval or trapezoidal

(1) broad kidney shaped

(2) narrow, rectangular, longer than broad, to approximately tubular

(3) approximately tear-shape, broadest anteriorly, narrowing posteriorly

(4) small, approximately kidney shaped

(5) long and narrow, anterior end incurved laterally

(6) inverted Y-shaped

We have changed the enunciation of character state 2 to encompass a variation that we consider homologous.

60. Relationship between left and right nasal bones (LAS107)

(0) sutured to each other (1)

(2) close to each other

(3) widely separated

61. Posterior nostril relationship to nasal bone (LAS109)

(0) excavating the lateral margin of the nasals

(1) completely included in the posterior portion of the nasals

(2) cutting the posterolateral border of the nasals

(3) not indicated by the nasals

Cheek and circumborbital bones

62. Ossified sclerotic ring (LAS111)

(0) present

(1) absent

63. Quadrate laterally covered by infraorbital bones (LAS112)

(0) absent

(1) present

64. Supraorbital bones (LAS113)

(0) present

(1) absent

65. Circumborbital ring (LAS114)

(0) most anterior supraorbital does not contact infraorbitals

(1) most anterior supraorbital contacts infraorbital series

66. Number of supraorbital bones (LAS115)

(0) more than four

(1) three or four

(2) two

(3) one

67. Size of supraorbital bones relative to orbit (LAS117)

(0) small

(1) large

(2) all supraorbitals small except the first, most anterior supraorbital, which is large, expanded anteriorly

68. Shape of most anterior supraorbital bone (LAS118)

(0) subrectangular to triangular, if the ring is closed, contacting only the antorbital or one infraorbital bone

(1) trapezoidal, longest ventrally, contacting more than one infraorbital bone

(2) pentagonal

(3) expanded anteroventrally, making the anterodorsal corner of the orbit

69. Size and shape of dermosphenotic (LAS119)

(0) extended and tapering rostrally

(1) extended and tapering caudally, ending at the level of the anterior margin of the dermopterotic (or pterotic)

(2) very large, extended and tapering caudally, reaching close to the level of the preopercular canal

(3) small, not distinctly extended rostrally or caudally

(4) large, keystone shaped

70. Position of dermosphenotic relative to orbital margin (LAS120)

(0) dermosphenotic participates in orbital margin

(1) dermosphenotic is excluded from orbital margin

71. Dermosphenotic/sphenotic association (LAS121)

(0) closely associated with each other (i.e. contacting or fused to each other)

(1) not in contact with each other

72. Shape of the postinfraorbital bones (jugal not included) (LAS123)

(0) deeper than long, sometimes almost tubular

(1) approximately quadrangular

(2) longer than deep, expanded posteriorly, not longer than the orbital diameter

(3) very large, longer than the orbit

(4) approximately triangular, tapering dorsally

(5) subrectangular and elongated in posterodorsal to anteroventral direction

73. Number of postorbital bones (infraorbital bones forming the posterior rim of the orbit (jugal not included) (LAS124)

(0) one

(1) two

(2) three

(3) none

74. The largest circumborbital bone is (LAS125)

(0) the jugal (infraorbital placed at the posteroventral corner of the orbit), and it is not much larger than other infraorbital bones

(1) the jugal (infraorbital placed at the posteroventral corner of the orbit), and it is notably larger than other infraorbitals

(2) a postorbital occupying the posteroventral and posterior rim of the orbit (in some cases this area is occupied by one or more bones of similar size)

(3) the dermosphenotic or a supraorbital (all these bones being of similar size)

(4) one of the supraorbitals (the dermosphenotic is notably smaller than the supraorbitals)

(5) the infraorbital placed at the centre of the ventral margin of the orbit

(6) the lachrymal or infraorbital placed at the anteroventral corner of the orbit

(7) ‘one of the anterior infraorbitals

(8) the jugal or the lachrymal, both with similar size

75. Contact between preopercle and jugal or lower postinfraorbital (LAS126)

(0) absent

(1) present

76. General shape of the subinfraorbital bone(s) (Infraorbital bones forming the ventral border of the orbit between the lachrymal and the jugal) (LAS127)

(0) subrectangular to triangular, about 1,5 to 2,5 times deeper than long

(1) subtriangular, longer ventrally, more than 3 times deeper than long

(2) quadrangular to longer than deep, notably smaller than the orbit

(3) subrectangular, a quarter to half the size of the orbit

(4) scroll-like

77. Anterior infraorbitals (LAS130)

(0) absent

(1) present

78. Number of anterior infraorbitals (LAS131)

(0) one

(1) two or more

(2) three or more

(3) four or more

(4) five or more

(5) six or more

(6) seven or more

The number of anterior infraorbital bones is variable in several taxa. This variation is intraspecific, but not ontogenetic. For this reason, we decided to score the minimal number of anterior infraorbitals for each species.

79. Shape of most anterior anterior-infraorbital (LAS132)

(0) not distinct than adjacent infraorbital

(1) rectangular dorsal portion, ventrally expanded and higher than adjacent infraorbital

(2) narrowing dorsally, expanded ventrally, further ventral than the adjacent anterior infraorbitals

(3) approximately rectangular, deeper than adjacent anterior infraorbital

80. Ventral border of infraorbital series (LAS133)

(0) follows a straight line or a gentle curve

(1) flexes abruptly dorsally at the anterior margin of the orbit

81. A series of toothed infraorbitals bordering the snout (LAS134)

(0) absent

(1) present

82. Shape of antorbital bone (LAS136)

(0) approximately triangular or drop-like, narrowing posterodorsally

(1) rectangular

(2) clavate

(3) sickle- to L-shape

(4) approximately triradiated, Y-shape

(5) tubular

(6) splint-like

83. Suborbital bones (LAS143)

(0) present

(1) absent

84. Number of suborbital bones (LAS144)

(0) one

(1) two

(3) three

(4) four or more, usually numerous suborbitals

85. Distribution of suborbital bones (LAS145)

(0) suborbitals limited to the area between the infraorbitals and preopercle posterior to the orbit

(1) suborbitals occupy the area between the infraorbitals and preopercle  posterior and below the orbit

86. Arrangement of suborbital bones (LAS146)

(0) one row

(1) two rows

(2) mosaic of numerous suborbitals

87. Independent of the total number, there is a large suborbital covering almost the whole area between the infraorbital bones and the preopercle (LAS147)

(0) absent

(1) present

88. Independent of the total number, there is a suborbital bone between the dermopterotic and preopercle (LAS148)

(0) absent

(1) present

89. Relative size of the most anterior and most dorsal suborbitals (LAS149)

(0) of similar size than the other suborbitals

(1) notably larger than the other suborbitals

90. Suborbitals covering the quadrate laterally (LAS150)

(0) present, suborbitals within a series or mosaic, no distinct shape

(1) present, one or two suborbitals forming a triangular plate

Jaws and dentition

91. Premaxillary nasal processes (= lateral dermethmoids) (LAS152)

(0) small lining the nasal pits, without or only partially surrounding the passage of the olfactory nerve

(1) large completely enclosing the olfactory fenestra

(2) spiniform, not forming an olfactory fenestra

We added character state two representing the condition in the species of Eosemionotus. We revised the scorings for this character in the light of the newly recognized condition and consequently made several changes.

92. Premaxillary nasal process relationship to frontal (LAS153)

(0) does not suture to the frontal

(1) sutures to the ventral surface of the frontal

(2) sutures to the anterior border of the frontal

The definition of character state 2 because in some taxa (e.g., Neosemionotus) the nasal process of the premaxilla sutures to the anterior border of the frontal, but it does not participate of the skull roof. This later condition is not coded in an independent character (ch. 181) taken from López-Arbarello (2012).

93. Maxilla (N154)

(0) present and independent

(1) fused to toothed infraorbital bones

94. Length of maxilla relative to coronoid process (LAS156)

(0) very long, extends beyond the coronoid process

(1) extends backwards partially covering the coronoid process laterally

(2) very short, does not reach the coronoid process

95. Posterior extent of maxilla relative to orbit (LAS157)

(0) beyond posterior orbital margin

(1) up to posterior orbital margin

(2) up to centre of the orbit

(3) up to anterior orbital margin

(4) in front of the orbit

96. Shape of maxilla (LAS158)

(0) elongate, broad posteriorly, stretches well behind the orbit

(1) elongate, shallow

(2) maxilla extremely slender

(3) deep, depth > 0,5 of its length

97. Ventral margin of maxilla (LAS159)

(0) straight or almost straight

(1) slightly convex

(2) slightly concave

(3) bends downwards posteriorly

98. Shape of posterodorsal corner of maxilla (LAS160)

(0) rounded to straight angle

(1) acute angle

99. Postmaxillary process (LAS161)

(0) absent

(1) present and small

(2) present and notably large, posterior border of maxilla deeply excavated

100. Shape of dorsal margin of maxilla (LAS162)

(0) straight or concave infraorbital and convex postorbital portions

(1) generally straight or convex

(2) gently concave allocating supramaxilla

(3) with a distinct supramaxillary notch

101. Supramaxilla (LAS163)

(0) absent

(1) present, single bone

(2) present, two bones

102. Posteroventral end of the dentary (LAS166)

(0) not particularly expanded

(1) forming a well-developed process extending beyond the coronoid process

103. Coronoid process (LAS168)

(0) made up by the dentary and surangular

(1) made up by the dentary only

(2) made up by the surangular only

(3) made up by the surangular and angular

(4) made up by the dentary and angular

104. Retroarticular (LAS174)

(0) absent

(1) present and separate

(2) present and fused to angular only

(3) present and fused to articular only

(4) present and fused to angular and articular

105. Retroarticular and quadrato-mandibular joint (LAS175)

(0) retroarticular excluded from the joint facet for quadrate

(1) retroarticular included in the joint facet for quadrate

106. Plicidentine structure in teeth (LAS177)

(0) absent

(1) present

107. Organization of teeth on premaxilla (LAS178)

(0) single row

(1) more than one row

(2) single row plus anterior fang

108. Relative size of largest premaxillary teeth (LAS179)

(0) of similar size of dentary teeth

(1) larger than dentary teeth

(2) smaller than dentary teeth

109. Maxillary teeth (LAS180)

(0) present

(1) absent

110. Tooth organization on dentary (LAS182)

(0) teeth in a single row and of similar size

(1) in addition to a lateral single row of similar sized teeth, there is a medial row of much larger fangs

(2) teeth of similar size arranged in two or more rows

111. Extent of teeth on dentary (excluding coronoid toothplates) (LAS183)

(0) tooth row extends over at least a third the length of dentary

(1) tooth row is present on only the anterior one third or less of dentary

112. Morphology of dentary teeth (LAS184)

(0) conical

(1) pointed pencil like

(2) high, bluntly pencil like

(3) molariform, broader than high

(4) conical with labiolingually compressed, sharply carinate (keeled) caps

113. Morphology of teeth on anterior coronoids (LAS185)

(0) conical

(1) pointed pencil like

(2) high, blunt, flattened or broadly rounded

(3) ‘molariform, broader than high

114. Morphology of vomerine teeth (LAS186)

(0) conical

(1) pointed pencil like

(2) blunt, flattened or broadly rounded

(3) molariform

(4) heterogeneous sharply pointed fangs

Opercular bones, branchiostegals and gular

115. Shape of preopercle (LAS187)

(0) long, angularly bent, with almost horizontal anterodorsal and vertical (1) posteroventral portions

(2) plate-like, broad dorsally, narrowing ventrally

(3) comma-shape

(4) roughly L-shape

116. Anterior/anteroventral end of preopercle (LAS189)

(0) broadly tapered

(1) finely tapered

117. Relative length of preopercular arms (LAS190)

(0) vertical arm is longer than horizontal arm

(1) horizontal arm is longer than vertical arm

118. Exposure of dorsal limb of preopercle (LAS194)

(0) infraorbital or suborbital bones do not overlap, but only the anterior rim of preopercle

(1) suborbital bones completely overlap the dorsal limb of preopercle

119. Preopercle to dermopterotic relationship (LAS195)

(0) preopercle reaches at least close to dermopterotic

(1) preopercle and dermopterotic are well separated

120. Posterior border of the preopercle notched ventrally (LAS196)

(0) absent

(1) present

121. Suprapreopercle (LAS197)

(0) absent

(1) present

122. Shape of the opercle width/length (LAS198)

(0) deeper than long

(1) approximately as deep as long

(2) tapering anteroventrally

(3) longer than deep

123. Opercle ornamentation in adult-sized individuals (LAS199)

(0) densely arranged low tubercles and/or ridges

(1) well-defined tubercles

(2) pattern of ridges radiating from the anterodorsal corner

(3) denticles

(4) ornamentation weak or absent

124. Base of ascending process of the subopercle (LAS201)

(0) broad, more than 30% of the maximal length of the bone

(1) narrow, between 10 and 30% of the maximal length of the bone

(2) tiny, less than 10% of the maximal length of the bone

125. Height ascending process of the subopercle (LAS202)

(0) low, 20% of the maximal length of the bone

(1) medium, 20-40% of the maximal length of the bone

(2) high, approximately 50-60% of the maximal length of the bone

(3) very high, approximately 70% or more the maximal length of the bone

126. Subopercle maximal depth (excluding ascending process) (LAS203)

(0) more than half the depth of the opercle

(1) less than half the depth of the opercle

(2) deeper than the opercle

127. Interopercle (N204)

(0) absent

(1) present

128. Relationship between interopercle and the lower jaw (LAS205)

(0) anterior end of interopercle close to mandible

(1) interopercle remote from mandible

129. Branchiopercle (LAS206)

(0) absent

(1) present

130. Maximal number of branchiostegal rays (LAS207 modified)

(0) fourteen

(1) twelve

(2) ten

(3) nine

(4) eight or

(5) seven

(6) six

(7) five

(8) four

(9) three

This character is coded as discrete character using ranges in López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018). Instead, we use multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation in the number of branchiostegal rays reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal observed number of rays.

131. Median gular (LAS208)

(0) absent

(1) present

Sensory canals

132. Position of junction of supraorbital and temporal canals (LAS215)

(0) exclusively within frontal bone

(1) exclusively within dermosphenotic bone

(2) exclusively within dermopterotic bone

133. Supraorbital sensory canal in parietal (LAS216)

(0) present

(1) absent

134. Middle pit line (LAS217)

(0) leaving a groove or pore-line on the parietal and dermopterotic

(1) leaving a groove or pore-line on the parietal only

(2) in the dermopterotic only

(3) leaving no trace on the bones

135. Position of the supratemporal commissure (LAS218)

(0) pierces extrascapulars

(1) pierces extrascapulars and parietals

(2) pierces parietals only, or parietals and supraoccipital

(3) pierces dermopterotics

136. Orbital canal (LAS219)

(0) absent

(1) present

137. Posttemporal penetration by lateral line canal (LAS222)

(0) present

(1) absent

Vertebral column

138. Arcocentrum (LAS225)

(0) absent

(1) present and thin, ring-like centra

(2) present and forming solidly ossified centra

139. Large parapophyses (LAS231)

(0) absent

(1) present, not fused to the centra

(2) present, fused to the centra

140. Relationship between the abdominal neural arches and vertebral centra (LAS234)

(0) neuual arches attached to the centra but not fused to them

(1) all or most of the neural arches fused to the centra

141. Distribution of supraneural bones (LAS238)

(0) extend below dorsal fin

(1) the series of supraneurals ends anterior to dorsal fin

142. Neural arch on preural centrum 1 (Pu1) (LAS255)

(0) with neural spine

(1) without neural spine

Median fins

143. Shape of posterior margin of caudal fin (LAS278)

(0) forked

(1) convexly rounded

(2) concave

144. Total number of principal caudal fin rays (LAS282)

(0) variable, more than 50

(1) variable, between 19 and 50

(2) stable at 19

(3) variable, up to 19

145. Number of rays forming the dorsal margin of the caudal fin (LAS283)

(0) more than two (branched or not)

(1) two, at least the first unbranched

(2) one branched

(3) one unbranched

146. Number of principal caudal fin rays below lateral line (LAS284)

(0) more than eight

(1) eight

(2) seven

(3) six

147. Number of principal caudal fin rays associated to the preural skeleton (LAS285)

(0) more than nine

(1) seven or eight

(2) four to six

(3) one to three

148. Number of rays forming the ventral margin of the caudal fin (LAS286)

(0) two or more (branched or not)

(1) one branched

(2) one unbranched

149. Dorsal processes of the bases of innermost principal caudal fin rays (LAS287)

(0) absent

(1) present

150. Number of hypaxial procurrent (segmented) caudal fin rays (LAS290)

(0) none

(1) one

(2) two to five

(3) six to eleven

151. Epaxial basal fulcra (not segmented) (LAS291)

(0) present and scale-like

(1) present as procurrent rays

(2) distinctly large, deeply imbricated forming a dorsal keel embracing the body lobe

We added character state two representing the condition in the species of Eosemionotus.

152. Accessory row of scales adjacent to the ventral border of the body lobe (LAS293)

(0) absent

(1) present, one row

(2) present, two or more rows

153. Dorsal scute(s) preceding caudal fin (LAS296)

(0) present, more than one

(1) present, single

(2) absent

154. Ventral scute(s) preceding caudal fin (LAS297)

(0) present, more than one

(1) present, single

(2) absent

López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018) considered characters 296 and 297 inapplicable for those taxa with a complete series of dorsal caudal fulcra because of the unclear homology between the isolated dorsal and ventral scutes preceding the caudal fin of teleosts and many halecomorphs. Reviewing this topic, we now follow López-Arbarello and Codorniú (2007) in their distinction between scutes (characters 296 and 297), which are laying on the caudal peduncle, and basal fulcra (characters 291), which are laying in the body lobe. This distinction is supported by the independent development of the squamation of the body and the body-lobe. The precaudal scutes of teleosts are distinct from the series of epaxial basal fulcra and, thus, are most probably homologous with the scutes of other neopterygians. Based on these hypotheses of homology it has been possible to score these characters for most of the taxa included in the analysis. Additionally, we added the state three to the character 297, representing the peculiar condition of the ventral scutes preceding the caudal fin in macrosemiids.

155. Number of fringing fulcra on the first principal caudal fin ray (LAS299)

(0) numerous

(1) one to five

156. Maximal number of dorsal fin rays (LAS301 modified)

(0) 6

(1) 7

(2) 8

(3) 9

(4) 10

(5) 11

(6) 12

(7) 13

(8) 15

(9) 16

(A) 18

(B) 20

(C) 21

(D) 24

(E) 28

(F) 30-40

(G) 50 or more

This character is coded as discrete character using ranges in López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018). Instead, we use multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal number observed.

157. Shape of dorsal fin (LAS302)

(0) triangular

(1) anterior rays distinctly higher forming a sickle-shaped margin

(2) bow-shaped

(3) divided in two sections

158. Relationship between first dorsal proximal pterygiophore and fin rays (LAS304)

(0) articulates with procurrent rays or basal fulcra and first principal ray

(1) articulates with procurrent rays or basal fulcra only

159. First principal dorsal ray (LAS305)

(0) branched

(1) unbranched

160. Maximal number of anal fin rays (LAS306 modified)

(0) 5

(1) 6

(2) 7

(3) 8

(4) 9

(5) 10

(6) 11

(7) 12

(8) 15

This character is coded as discrete character using ranges in López-Arbarello and Sferco (2018). Instead, we use multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal number observed.

161. Shape of anal fin (LAS307)

(0) triangular

(1) anterior rays distinctly deeper forming a sickle-shaped margin

(2) bow-shaped or straight

162. Relationship between first anal pterygiophore and fin rays (LAS308)

(0) articulates with procurrent rays or basal fulcra and first principal ray

(1) articulates with procurrent rays or basal fulcra only

163. First principal anal fin ray (LAS310)

(0) branched

(1) unbranched

164. Relative size of the basal fulcra in the dorsal fin (LAS312)

(0) slender, equalling or more slender than the basal segment of the first dorsal fin ray

(1) stout and short, shorter than the basal segment of the first dorsal fin ray

(2) stout and increasing up to relatively high, higher than the basal segment of the first dorsal fin ray

(3) ray-like

165. Relative size of the basal fulcra in the anal fin (LAS313)

(0) slender, equalling or more slender than the basal segment of the first anal fin ray

(1) stout and short, shorter than the basal segment of the first anal fin ray

(2) stout and increasing up to relatively high, higher than the basal segment of the first anal fin ray

(3) ray-like

166. Preanal scute (LAS314)

(0) absent

(1) present, smooth surface and borders

(2) present, smooth surface, indented border

167. Fringing fulcra on dorsal and anal fins (LAS315)

(0) present

(1) absent

168. Pattern of fringing fulcra on median fins (LAS316)

(0) formed by a combination of small, spiny bony fringing fulcra positioned between the terminal segments of the procurrent and/or marginal rays

(1) formed by a combination of small, spiny bony fringing fulcra positioned between the terminal segments of the procurrent and subsequently lying on the surface of the marginal ray(s)

(2) formed of small, paired, spine-like elements lying on the surface of the marginal ray(s) only

Paired girdles and fins

169. Relative height of the posttemporal bone (LAS317)

(0) high, reaching or almost reaching the dorsal midline

(1) low, approximately as high as the dermopterotic

(2) posttemporals very small

170. Anterior process of posttemporal bone (LAS318)

(0) absent

(1) present, blunt

(2) present, large and knob-like

171. Presupracleithrum (LAS320)

(0) absent

(1) present

172. Supracleithrum with a concave articular facet for articulation with the posttemporal (LAS321)

(0) absent

(1) present

173. Relationship between lateral line system and supracleithrum (LAS322)

(0) emerging at the middle

(1) emerging at its upper half

(2) emerging at its lower half

174. General shape of cleithrum (LAS323)

(0) sickle to L-shape with approximately equally large vertical and horizontal portions

(1) sickle to L-shape with horizontal portion 1,5 to 2 times larger than vertical portion

(2) sickle without clearly distinct vertical and horizontal portions

175. Medial wing of cleithrum (LAS324)

(0) absent

(1) present

176. Ornamentation of the cleithrum (LAS325)

(0) absent

(1) one or more series of toothed ridges on the anterolateral surface

177. Number of postcleithra (LAS326)

(0) none

(1) one

(2) two

(3) three

(4) four

(5) five

(6) six or more

178. Clavicles (LAS327)

(0) present

(1) absent

179. Fringing fulcra on pectoral fin (LAS334)

(0) present

(1) absent

180. Fringing fulcra on pelvic fin (LAS337)

(0) present

(1) absent

Characters from López-Arbarello (2012)

181. Premaxillary nasal processes form external dermal components of the skull roof (LA48)

(0) absent

(1) present

182. Supraorbital sensory canal in premaxillary nasal processes (LA49)

(0) absent

(1) present

New characters

183. Median ethmoidal ossification

(0) absent

(1) present

184. Bone separating the metapterygoid from the ectopterygoid

(0) endopterygoid

(1) quadrate or a large palatoquadrate endochondral ossification

(2) he bones were probably separated by cartilage

185. Contact between metapterygoid/ectopterygoid is due to

(0) metapterygoid placed anteriorly

(1) metapterygoid expanded anteriorly

(2) ectopterygoid enlarged posteriorly

186. Frontal bones

(0) independent

(1) fused to each other

187. Frontal bones strongly constricted at the orbit; minimal interorbital width less than half of maximal width in the temporal region

(0) absent

(1) present

188. Maximal number of premaxillary teeth

(0) four

(1) five

(2) six

(3) seven

(4) eight

(5) nine

This character includes multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal number observed.

189. Maximal number of scales in marginal row of body lobe

(0) 14

(1) 12

(2) 11

(3) 10

(4) nine

(5) eight

(6) seven

(7) five

(8) four

This character includes multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal number observed.

190. Maximal number of scales posterodorsal to the hinge-line

(0) nine

(1) eight

(2) seven

(3) six

(4) five

(5) four

(6) three

This character includes multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal number observed.

191. Maximal number of dorsal caudal fulcra on the body lobe

(0) 12

(1) Ten

(2) nine

(3) eight

(4) six

(5) five

(6) four

This character includes multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal number observed.

192. Number of scales along the lateral line

(0) more or equal 60

(1) more or equal 50

(2) more or equal 40

(3) more or equal 30

(4) 26-29

(5) 20-25

This character includes multiple states representing the raw counts directly. The intraspecific variation reported for several taxa is usually due to incomplete preservation. For this reason, we decided to score the maximal number observed.

APPENDIX 3.

List of synapomorphies to “Taxonomy and phylogeny of Eosemionotus Stolley, 1920 (Neopterygii: Ginglymodi) from the Middle Triassic of Europe”

appendix3