FIGURE 1. Schematic geological map (modified from Weber, 1955) of SE Thuringia (Thuringian Slate Mountains) - localities with top Famennian and/or basal Tournaisian sections on the SE flank of Schwarzburg Anticline (SwA), southeast of Saalfeld, and on the NW flank of Berga Anticline, west and north of Schleiz.

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FIGURE 2. Topographic maps of Thuringian localities with fossiliferous top Famennian and/or basal Tournaisian sections. 1, southeastern environments of Saalfeld, localities 1-18 (compare Table 1) (modified from Bartzsch and Weyer, 2012). 2, Buschteich and Kahlleite sections SSW of Tegau (NNE of Schleiz).

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FIGURE 3. Upper Famennian and basal Tournaisian lithostratigraphy (with indication of thickness for each member) in the Thuringian Slate Mountains (modified from Bartzsch et al., 1999, 2001, 2008). A., Anticline; Fm, Formation; S, system; St, stage; Sst, substage.

figure3a 

 

 

FIGURE 4. Lithostratigraphy and ammonoid zonation of the Breternitz Member near Saalfeld (Thuringia) and brachiopod distribution (modified from Bartzsch and Weyer, 2012).

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FIGURE 5. Stratigraphy of the early Hastarian (Lower Tournaisian) Pfaffenberg Member near Saalfeld (Thuringia) - lithostratigraphy, ammonoid-conodont-trilobite biozones, brachiopod distribution. Lithological sequence (dominating shales with micritic limestone beds and nodules) after Bartzsch and Weyer (1982, figure 2, 2-3), mainly based on the type section in the ancient quarry Pfaffenberg-Northeast in the upper Mühltal valley near Saalfeld-Obernitz. Ammonoid and conodont biostratigraphy after Bartzsch and Weyer (1982), slightly modified according to current terminology and zoological nomenclature, including some new records. Trilobita zonation after Gawlick (1995, 1996, 1997, 2002), using the phylogeny of Liobolina Richter and Richter, 1951 in the European basinal facies - Liobolina (Guilinaspis) crestaverdensis Feist, 1992, Liobolina (Liobolina) submonstrans Richter and Richter, 1951, Liobolina (Liobolina) nebulosa Richter and Richter, 1951, and Liobolina (Liobolina) saalfeldensis Gawlick (in Hahn and Hahn, 2008). The black dot indicates the observed local first appearance of taxa, not necessarily the real first appearance in view of the rather rare ammonoid and conodont faunas. The hitherto mostly neglected remarkable gap in the ammonoid sequence and zonation of the German Gattendorfia -“Stufe” was already suspected in Bartzsch and Weyer (1982, figure 9) and is now reality (Korn and Weyer, 2003, p. 92, figure 12) - ammonoid faunas (with Kahlacanites) of this time interval occur in Morocco and Algeria (Ebbighausen et al., 2004; Bockwinkel and Ebbighausen, 2006). The range of the brachiopods Anopliopsis glabra and Thuringochonetes thuringicus is based on Afanasjeva (2002). Abbreviations: AZ, ammonoid zones; CZ, conodont zones; TZ, trilobite zones; br., bransoni Zone; cr., crestaverdensis Zone; subm., submonstrans Zone.

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FIGURE 6. 1-4, “Lingularia” sp. indet. from the Breternitz Member. 1-3, possible ventral valve (MB.B.9817) in orthogonal view and details of the posterior region and of the ornamentation (Obernitz-Vorderbohlen, do V). 4, undifferentiated valve (MB.B.9818) in orthogonal view (railway cut Gleitsch-A-NE, bed 21.5, lower do VI). 5-6, “Lingularia” sp. indet. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE). 5, undifferentiated valve (MB.B.9819) in orthogonal view (bed 8β). 6, undifferentiated valve (MB.B.9820) in orthogonal view (bed 6 γ). 7-22, “Lingularia” straeleni Demanet, 1934, Tournaisian (precise stratigraphic level unknown) from the Tournai region, southern Belgium. 7-13, undifferentiated valve (RBINS a5801) in in orthogonal, lateral, posterior, and anterior views, detail of the posterior region, oblique posterior view, and details of the ornamentation (precise origin unknown). 14-17, flattened, undifferentiated valve (lectotype, RBINS a5802) in orthogonal, lateral, posterior, and anterior views (precise origin unknown). 18-22, articulated specimen (RBINS a5803), almost complete, detail of ornamentation and posterior, “ventral”, “dorsal” and lateral views (Antoing, Orient quarry). Scale bars: 1, 5-6, 11-12 (1 mm), 2 (400 µm), 3 and 18 (200 µm), 4, 7-10, 14-17 and 19-22 (2 mm), 13 (250 µm). All SEM.

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FIGURE 7. 1-5, Oehlertella ? sp. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE). 1-3, almost complete dorsal valve (MB.B.9821) in dorsal, lateral and posterior views (bed 3). 4, complete dorsal valve (MB.B.9822) (bed 6γ). 5, almost complete dorsal valve (MB.B.9823) (bed 6γ). 6-9, Acrotretide? gen. et sp. indet. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE and SW). 6, decorticated ventral (?) valve (MB.B.9824) (bed 8β NE). 7, ventral (?) valve (MB.B.9825) (bed 4 SW). 8-9, ventral (?) valve (MB.B.9826) in lateral and ventral views (bed 8α NE). 10, Tornquistia ? sp. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-SW, bed 8α), ventral valve (MB.B.9827). 11-14, Orthide gen. et sp. indet. from the Breternitz Member. 11-13, internal mould of a ventral valve (MB.B.9828), external mould and plasticine mould (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, bed 6). 14, ventral valve (MB.B.9829) (Fischersdorf-West, bed 32.11). 15-17, Rhynchonellide gen. et sp. indet. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE, bed 1) crushed articulated specimen (MB.B.9830) in ventral, dorsal and lateral views. Scale bars: 1 mm, except 4 and 14 (500 µm). All SEM.

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FIGURE 8. Productina saalfeldensis sp. nov. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE and SW). 1-3, incomplete ventral valve (MB.B.9831) in ventral, lateral, and posterior views (bed 5α SW). 4-5, distorted ventral valve (MB.B.9832) in posterior and ventral views (bed 5β SW). 6-8, ventral valve (MB.B.9833) in ventral, lateral and posterior views (bed 5γ SW). 9-14, slightly distorted articulated specimen (MB.B.9834) in ventral, dorsal, oblique postero-dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 4 SW). 15-19, almost complete articulated specimen (holotype, MB.B.9835) with dorsal valve concealed with shaly matrix in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 5γ SW). 20, incomplete dorsal external mould (MB.B.9836) (6δ NE). 21-24, incomplete and slightly distorted ventral valve (MB.B.9837) in ventral, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 4SW). 25-27, almost complete ventral valve (MB.B.9838) in ventral, lateral and posterior views (bed 4 SW). 28-30, slightly distorted ventral valve (MB.B.9839) in ventral, lateral and posterior views (bed 4 SW). 31-34, ventral valve (MB.B.9840) with detail of lateral spine base, in ventral, lateral and posterior views (bed 5β SW). 35-36, slightly distorted ventral internal mould (MB.B.9841) in ventral and oblique posterior views (bed 6δ NE). 37-38, distorted dorsal internal mould (MB.B.9842) in oblique posterior view and detail of the dorsal muscle field and of the poorly preserved cardinal process (bed 5α SW). 39, distorted dorsal internal mould (MB.B.9843) in dorsal view (bed 5α SW). 40-43, distorted dorsal internal mould (MB.B.9844) in dorsal, oblique lateral, and oblique posterior views and close-up of the posterior region (bed 5α SW). Scale bars: 2 mm, except 31 (200 µm), 38 (500 µm), and 43 (1 mm). All SEM.

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FIGURE 9. Thuringorhynchus pseudoequitans gen. nov. et sp. nov. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE). 1-6, juvenile articulated specimen (MB.B.9845), almost complete, in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views, and detail of the posterior margin (bed 8β). 7-11, juvenile articulated specimen (MB.B.9846) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 6δ). 12-16, articulated specimen (MB.B.9847) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior, oblique anterior and anterior views (bed 6δ). 17-22, articulated specimen (MB.B.9848) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 6δ). 23-27, articulated specimen (MB.B.9849) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 8α). 28-32, articulated specimen (MB.B.9850) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 8α). 33-38, articulated specimen (MB.B.9851) in ventral, dorsal, dorsal (with inclined lateral commissures), lateral, posterior and anterior (with inclined lateral commissures) views (bed 9α). 39-44a, articulated specimen (holotype, MB.B.9852) in ventral, dorsal, dorsal (with inclined lateral commissures), lateral, posterior and anterior (with inclined lateral commissures) views (bed 8β). Scale bars: 1-5 (2.5 mm), 6 (1 mm), 7-44 (5 mm). All SEM, except 28-44.

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FIGURE 10. Transverse serial sections of Thuringorhynchus pseudoequitans gen. et sp. nov. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE, bed 8α) (MB.B.9853) Numbers refer to distances in mm from the tip of the ventral umbo. Scale bars: 1 mm.

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FIGURE 11. Scatter diagrams of Thuringorhynchus pseudoequitans gen. et sp. nov. Abbreviations: N, number of specimens measured; r²: coefficient of linear regression. 1, Relation between shell width and length. 2, Relation between shell width and thickness. 3, Relation between shell width and sulcus width.

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FIGURE 12. 1-25, Hadyrhyncha hadyensis Havlíček, 1979 from the Breternitz Member (do V). 1-5, juvenile articulated specimen (MB.B.9854) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Breternitz-Middle, bed 2.1-2). 6-10, juvenile articulated specimen (MB.B.9855) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Breternitz-Middle, bed 6). 11-15, articulated specimen (MB.B.9856) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Fischersdorf-Middle, bed 5.1). 16-20, articulated specimen (MB.B.9857) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Fischersdorf-Middle, bed 4.1). 21-25, articulated specimen (MB.B.9858) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Breternitz-Middle, bed 11.1-5). 26-35, Rozmanaria equitans (Schmidt, 1924) from the Breternitz Member (do V). 26-30, incomplete articulated specimen (MB.B.9859) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, bed 18.1-5). 31-35, articulated specimen (MB.B.9860) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Mühlfelsen-North, bed 18.1-2). Scale bars: 2 mm. All SEM, except 11-25.

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FIGURE 13. 1-26, Novaplatirostrum cf. fibrosissimum (Tietze, 1870) from the Breternitz Member (do V-VI). 1, close-up of radial capillae in sulcus of an articulated specimen (MB.B.9861), close to the anterior margin (SEM) (Breternitz-East, bed 18.1-3). 2-6, articulated specimen (MB.B.9862) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, bed 26.1-3). 7-11, articulated specimen (MB.B.9863) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, bed 23.1-3). 12-16, articulated specimen (MB.B.9864) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, bed 23.1-3). 17-21, articulated specimen (MB.B.9865) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Breternitz-East, bed 22.7-12). 22-26, articulated specimen (MB.B.9866) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Obernitz-Bornleite-South, bed 28.3). 27-33, Novaplatirostrum fibrosissimum (Tietze, 1870), Dzikowiec near Nowa Ruda, Lower Silesia (Poland), do VI. 27-31, articulated and decorticated specimen (MB.B.9867) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views. 32-33, ventral valve (MB.B.9868) embedded in carbonate matrix in ventral and posterior views. Scale bars: 1 (1 mm), 2-33 (10 mm).

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FIGURE 14. Scatter diagrams of Novaplatirostrum cf. fibrosissimum (Tietze, 1870). Abbreviation: N, number of specimens measured; r²: coefficient of linear regression. 1, Relation between shell width and length. 2, Relation between shell width and thickness. 3, Relation between shell width and sulcus width.

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FIGURE 15. 1-5, Rozmanariid? gen. et sp. indet. from the Breternitz Member (do VI) distorted articulated specimen (MB.B.9869) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (Reschwitz-Mühlfelsen-South, bed 26.3-5). 6-7, Allorhynchus ? sp. from Pfaffenberg Member, incomplete and distorted ventral valve (MB.B.9870) in ventral and anterior views, (Pfaffenberg-SW, bed 5α). 8-13, Cleiothyridina sp. indet. from the Breternitz Member, articulated specimen (MB.B.9871) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views and close-up of the flat spines (Obernitz-Vorderbohlen, bed 21.1-12, do VI). Scale bars: 1-5 (2 mm), 6-7 (4 mm), 8-12 (5 mm), 13 (1 mm). All SEM, except 6-12.

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FIGURE 16. Cleiothyridina pfaffenbergensis sp. nov. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE and SW). 1-5, articulated specimen (MB.B.9872) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 3 SW). 6-11, articulated specimen (MB.B.9873) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views, and detail of predation trace on ventral valve (bed 1 NE, nodules). 12-18, incomplete articulate specimen (MB.B.9874) in ventral, dorsal, oblique dorsal, lateral and posterior views, and details of growth lamellae in ventral valve and on dorsal valve with spinous projections (bed 1 NE, nodules). 19-23, articulated specimen (holotype, MB.B.9875) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views, (bed 1 NE, nodules). Scale bars: 1-5 and 6-10 (2 mm), 11 and 17 (1 mm), 12-16 and 19-23 (3 mm), and 18 (800 µm). All SEM.

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FIGURE 17. Transverse serial sections of Cleiothyridina pfaffenbergensis sp. nov. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-SW, bed 1, nodules) (MB.B.9876). Numbers refer to distances in mm from the tip of the ventral umbo. Scale bars: 1 mm for all, except sections 0.6, 1.0, and 1.1 (500 µm).

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FIGURE 18. Composita ? sp. indet. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-SW). 1-5, articulated specimen (MB.B.9877) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 3). 6-10, articulated specimen (MB.B.9878) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 3). 11-15, articulated specimen (MB.B.9879) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 5δ). 16-22, articulated specimen (MB.B.9880) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views, and detail of the concentric ornamentation (bed 3). Scale bars: 1-20 (2 mm), 21-22 (400 µm). All SEM.

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FIGURE 19. 1-3, Spiriferide gen. et sp. indet. from the Breternitz Member (Fischersdorf-West, bed 32.5, upper do VI), incomplete and distorted ventral valve (MB.B.9881) in ventral, lateral and posterior views. 4-17, Crurithyris sp. indet. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE and SW). 4-8, articulated specimen (MB.B.9882) in ventral, lateral, dorsal, posterior and anterior views (bed 4 NE). 9-13, almost complete ventral valve (MB.B.9883) in ventral, lateral and posterior views, detail of the interarea showing the narrow deltidial plates, and close-up of the microornament on the right flank (bed 4 NE). 14-15, incomplete ventral interior (MB.B.9884), detail of the muscle field and ventral view (bed 4SW). 16-17, incomplete ventral interior (MB.B.9885) in ventral and posterior views (bed 5β SW). 18-22, Crurithyris ? sp. indet. from the Breternitz Member (do VI) (Obernitz-Bornleite-North, bed 21.1-22.12), slightly distorted, articulated specimen (MB.B.9886) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views. Scale bars: 1-11, 15, and 18-22 (2 mm), 12, 14 and 16-17 (1 mm), 13 (600 µm). All SEM.

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FIGURE 20. Crassumbo germanicus sp. nov. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-NE and SW). 1-5, slightly distorted articulated specimen (MB.B.9887) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 5α SW). 6-10, almost complete specimen (MB.B.9888) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 5γ NE). 11-15, articulated specimen (MB.B.9889) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 3SW). 16-20, 26, articulated specimen (MB.B.9890) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views and detail of the delthyrium bordered by narrow deltidial plates (bed 4 SW). 21-25, articulated specimen (holotype, MB.B.9891) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 4SW). 27, Close-up of the growth lamellae and capillae on ventral valve of an articulated specimen (MB.B.9892) (bed 5α SW). 28-29, incomplete ventral internal mould specimen (MB.B.9893) and detail of the muscle field and dental plates (bed 4SW). 30-32, incomplete dorsal internal mould (MB.B.9894) in dorsal view, detail of the posterior region, lateral oblique view of the latter (bed 3 SW). 33-34, incomplete dorsal interior (MB.B.9895) in lateral oblique view and detail of the muscle field (bed 4 SW). 35, incomplete dorsal mould (MB.B.9896) with well-preserved vascular canals (bed 4 SW). Scale bars: 1-10, 11-25, 28, 30, and 35 (5 mm), 26, 29, 33, 31, 32 and 34 (2 mm), 27 (1 mm). All SEM, except 35.

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FIGURE 21. Transverse serial sections of Crassumbo germanicus sp. nov. from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-SW, bed 5β) (MB.B.9897). Numbers refer to distances in mm from the tip of the ventral umbo. Scale bars: 1 mm.

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FIGURE 22. Scatter diagrams of Crassumbo germanicus sp. nov. Abbreviations: N, number of specimens measured; r2: coefficient of linear regression. 1, Relation between shell width and length. 2, Relation between shell width and thickness. 3, Relation between shell width and ventral interarea width. 4, Relation between shell width and sulcus width.

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FIGURE 23. Texathyris? tarpata (Schmidt, 1924). 1-20, Rhenish type material from Stockum locality (Acutimitoceras prorsum Zone). 1-4, ventral valve (lectotype, BGR-X5732) in ventral, lateral, posterior and anterior views. 5-10, ventral valve partly embedded in carbonate matrix (associated to BGR-X5731) in ventral, lateral, posterior and anterior (9) views, close-up of the umbonal region showing the median septum (8), and detail of the capillae in the sulcus (10). 11-15, almost complete dorsal valve (BGR-X5731) in dorsal, lateral oblique, lateral, posterior and anterior views. 16-20, incomplete dorsal valve (associated to BGR-X5732) in dorsal, lateral oblique, lateral, posterior and anterior views. 21-44, Thuringian material from the Pfaffenberg Member (Pfaffenberg-SW). 21-26, almost complete juvenile specimen (MB.B.9898) in ventral, dorsal, lateral oblique, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 2). 27-31, almost complete juvenile specimen (MB.B.9899) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 3). 32-33, slightly distorted ventral valve (MB.B.9900) in dorsal and anterior views (bed 3). 34, detail of the microornament of a distorted ventral valve (MB.B.9901) (bed 2SW). 35-39, slightly distorted articulated specimen (MB.B.9902) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 1, nodules). 40-44, almost complete articulated specimen (MB.B.9903) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views (bed 1, nodules). Scale bars: 1-7, 9, and 21-31 (2 mm), 11-20 (3.5 mm), 8 (500 µm), 10 (250 µm), 32-33 and 35-44 (4 mm), 34 (1 mm). All SEM, except 32-33, 35-44.

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FIGURE 24. Transverse serial sections of Texathyris? tarpata (Schmidt, 1924) from the Pfaffenberg Member (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, bed 1, nodules) (MB.B.9904). Numbers refer to distances in mm from the tip of the ventral umbo. Scale bars: 1 mm.

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FIGURE 25. Terebratulide gen. et sp. indet. from the Breternitz Member, Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen (bed 22.7-12, do VI), articulated specimen (MB.B.9905) in ventral, dorsal, lateral, posterior and anterior views and detail of the ventral umbo showing dental plates and apical cavities. Scale bars: 1-5 (5 mm) and 6 (1 mm). All SEM.

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FIGURE 26. Distribution of the brachiopods within the Gleitsch Formation (Breternitz and Pfaffenberg members; modified from Bartzsch et al., 2008) in the Saalfeld area (SE Thuringia), on both sides of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. The range of Anopliopsis glabra and Thuringochonetes thuringicus is based on Afanasjeva (2002). Abbreviations: Fm, formation; GS, German “Stufe”; N., Novaplatirostrum; Sst, substage; St, stage; Sy, system.

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FIGURE 27. Novaplatirostrum cf. fibrosissimum (Tietze, 1870) with epizoans. 1, dorsal view of an articulated specimen (MB.B.9906) with a bryozoan colony in its posterior part (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, beds 22.7-12, do VI). 2-3, dorsal view of an articulated specimen (MB.B.9907) with unidentified tube-worm epizoans and close-up of one of them (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, bed 11.2-5, do V). 4-8, articulated specimen (MB.B.9908), partly coated with gold, in ventral and dorsal views with enigmatic circular epizoans, close-up of that attached to ventral valve and detail of the structure of its shell (Fischersdorf-Gositzfelsen, beds 22.7-12, do VI). Scale bars: 1-2 and 4-5 (5 mm), 3 and 6 (500 µm), 7 (50 µm), and 8 (25 µm). All SEM, except 1-2, 4-5.

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