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FIGURE 1. Map showing the geographic location of Cañadón Vaca fossil locality (white star) in Chubut province, Argentina, and other geographic references mentioned in the text.

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FIGURE 2. Tetragonostylops aff. T. apthomasi (Price and Paula-Couto, 1950). 1, MPEF PV 5479, partial skull in lateral view; 2, idem, in dorsal view; 3, idem, detail of the glenoid surface, in ventrolateral view; 4, idem, right cheek teeth series in occlusal view; 5, MACN Pv CH1248, left M1 or M2 in occlusal view; 6, MPEF PV 5481, partial left M3, in occlusal view. Abbreviations: F=frontal, glf=glenoid fossa, H=hypocone, Ju=jugal, mcl=metaconule; Me=metacone, Mst=mesostyle, Mx=maxillary, N=nasal, NFs=naso-frontal suture (remarked), P=protocone, Pa=paracone, pgp=postglenoid process, Pst=parastyle, sc=sagittal crest, Sq=squamosal, tc=temporal crest. Arrows indicate mesial and lingual sides.

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FIGURE 3. cf. Scaglia cf. kraglievichorum, MPEF PV 5478, partial skull. 1, lateral view; 2, dorsal view; 3, ventral view. Abbreviations: apf=accessory palatine foramina, As= alisphenoid, Bo=basioccipital, Bs=basisphenoid, Eo=exoccipital, F=frontal, ftr=foramina for temporal rami, iof=infraorbital foramen, Ju=jugal, lf=lacrimal foramen, Mx=maxillary, mpf=major palatine foramen, N=nasal, nms= naso-maxillary suture, Pa=parietal, Pe=petrosal, ptp= posttympanic process of squamosal, Sq=squamosal.

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FIGURE 4. cf. Scaglia cf. kraglievichorum, MPEF PV 5478. Schematic partial reconstruction of the skull, in lateral view.

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FIGURE 5. cf. Scaglia cf. kraglievichorum, MPEF PV 5478. 1, skull base in ventral view (anterior to top); 2, detail of the auditory region in ventrolateral view (anterior to left); 3, detail of the auditory region in posteroventral view. 4, occipital view. Abbreviations: aas=accessory articular surface of the basioccipital, As=alisphenoid, Bo=basioccipital, cpc= foramen for the craniopharyngeal canal, eam=external acoustic meatus, Eo=exoccipital, fm=foramen magnum, fo=foramen ovale, gf=glenoid fossa, hf=hypoglossal foramina, jf=jugular foramen, mp=mastoid process, Pa=parietal, pcp=paracondilar process, Pe=petrosal, pf=piriform fenestra, pgf=postglenoid foramen, pgp=postglenoid process, ptp= posttympanic process of squamosal, rtp=rostral tympanic process, rt?= possible exit for an anterior derivation of a temporal ramus, sEt= sulcus for the Eustachian tube, sc=sagittal crest, Sq=squamosal, vt=ventral stem (vestige of the ectotympanic?).

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FIGURE 6. cf. Scaglia cf. kraglievichorum, MPEF PV 5478. Detail of the left P2-M3 series in occlusal view.

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FIGURE 7. Astrapotheriidae genus and species A, MPEF PV 5477, anterior portion of right dentary with i3, p2-p4 and partial alveoli for i1, i2, c1, p1, and m1. 1, lateral view; 2, dorsal view; 3, medial view; 4, i3 in occlusal view; 5, detail of p2-p4 in occlusal view. Abbreviations: ai1= alveolus for right i1, ai2=alveolus for right i2, arc1=alveolus for right c1, alc1=alveolus for left c1, ed=entoconid, hd=hypoconid, md=metaconid, pd=protoconid, pld=paralophid, rp1=root of p1.

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FIGURE 8. Trigonostylops wortmani Ameghino, 1897 from Cañadón Vaca. 1. MPEF PV 5482, left P4, in occlusal view; 2. MACN Pv CH1211, right m2, in occlusal view. Arrows indicate mesial and lingual sides.

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