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FIGURE A1. NMNZ S.47302, 1, the extent of the specimen that has been physically prepared, 2, the three-dimensionally rendered elements within the block. Fossils numbered in 2 are as follows: 1, coracoid; 2, unidentified, possibly a radiale; 3, sternum; 4, furcula; 5, mandible; 6, cervical vertebra; 7, unidentified; 8, unidentified; 9, cervical vertebra IV; 10, unidentified. Scale bar is equal to 50 mm.

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FIGURE A2. NMNZ S.47303, 1, the extent of the specimen that has been physically prepared, 2, the three-dimensionally rendered elements within the block. Fossils numbered in 2 are as follows: 1, ischium; 2, manus phalanx III-1; 3, radius; 4, radius; 5, cervical vertebra, Table 1 cervical (iv), Figure 2.25-30; 6, cervical vertebra, Table 1 cervical (iii), Figure 2.19-24; 7, carpometacarpus; 8, cervical vertebra, Table 1 cervical (ii), Figure 2.13-18; 9, possibly cervical vertebra III, Table 1 cervical (i), Figure 2.7-12; 10, manus phalanx II-1; 11, rib; 12, caudal vertebra; 13, axis. Scale bar is equal to 50 mm.

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FIGURE A3. NMNZ S.47303 in Materialise Mimics, cross-sectional view of right radius (Figure 5.7, 5.9-10) in top two images, 1, and left radius (Figure 5.6-11) in two lower images, 2. Cross-sectional perspective reveals a reduced marrow-cavity compared to modern aerially flighted birds, but not as dense as extant penguins.

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FIGURE A4. How specimens associated with Kupoupou stilwelli n. gen. et sp. are linked together through overlapping elements.

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FIGURE A5. Undescribed vertebrae and ribs referred to Kupoupou stilwelli n. gen. et sp. 1-7, vertebrae, NMNZ S.47339; and 9 and 10, ribs, NMNZ S.47339. 8, an incomplete vertebra, is part of NMNZ S.47302, associated with the larger Chatham Island form. Scale bar is equal to 10 mm.

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FIGURE A6. Majority-rule consensus (50%) tree treating NMNZ S.47302 and S.47304 as separate taxa (13,600 MPTs, L = 5,233 steps, CI = 0.5251, RI = 0.7020). Percentage of MPTs recovering each node is indicated at each internode in the consensus tree, and bootstrap support values (over 40% only) are numbered below them italicised in red.

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FIGURE A7. Majorite-rule consensus (50%) tree excluding character scores relating to referred material of Eocene Seymour Island taxa (400 MPTs, L = 5,212, RI = 0.7014, CI = 0.5272). Percentage of MPTs recovering each node is indicated at each internode in the consensus tree, and bootstrap support values (over 40% only) are numbered below them italicised in red.

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FIGURE A8. Strict consensus tree of 16,300 MPTs (length = 5,234). Bootstrap support values (over 40% only) are numbered below each node italicised in red.

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FIGURE A9. A sample of the variety of equally parsimonious phylogenetic relationships recovered between Paleocene taxa (length = 5,234).

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FIGURE A10. Specifics of referred hypotarsal morphology. 1, Diomedea antipodensis left (mirrored, adapted from Mayr, 2016); 2, Aphrodroma brevirostris, left (mirrored, adapted from Mayr, 2016); 3, Hydrobates castro, left (mirrored, adapted from Mayr, 2016); 4, Waimanu manneringi, right, CM zfa35; 5, Muriwaimanu tuatahi, right, 2009.99.1 (.STL file, tomographic rendering); 6, Marambiornis exilis, right, IB/P/B-0490 (modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); 7, Delphinornis gracilis, right, IB/P/B-0279a; 8, Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, MLP 95-I-10-142 (mirrored, modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); 9, Palaeeudyptes klekowskii, IB/P/B-0485 (mirrored, modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); 10, Palaeeudyptes antarcticus, right, BM A.1048; 11, Palaeospheniscus bergi, NHMUK A694 (mirrored, modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); 12, Spheniscus magellanicus, NHMUK 2001.45.1 (mirrored, modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); 13, Eudyptes chrysocome, NHMUK 1898.7.1.15 (mirrored, modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); 14, Aptenodytes forsteri, NHMUK 1905.12.30.419 (mirrored, modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); 15, Pygoscelis adeliae, unassigned from IB/P/B (mirrored, modified from Jadwiszczak, 2015); abbreviations: cl(fdl), crista lateralis flexoris digitorum longus; cl(fhl), crista lateralis flexoris hallucis longus; cm(fdl), crista medialis flexoris digitorum longus; fbl, sulcus for musculus fibularis longus; fdl, sulcus/canal for tendon of musculus flexor digitorum longus; fhl, sulcus/canal for tendon of musculus flexor hallucis longus; tfb, tuberculum musculus fibularis brevis. Dotted line represents estimated extent of bone. Not to scale.

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