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APPENDIX 1.

Measurements of dental remains of Giraffidae from Thermopigi. Sin: left; Dex: right; L: length; I: width; min: minimum; max: maximum. All measurements are in millimetres (mm).

Deciduous dentition                
Taxon Inv.
Number
Sin/Dex LD2 ID2 LD3 ID3 LD4 ID4                
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1425 sin 36.07 23.02                        
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1260 dex       27.75                    
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 671 sin         40.36 39.89                
Upper permanent dentition
Taxon Inv.
Number
Sin/Dex P2-P4 P2-M3 LP2 lP2 LP3 lP3 LP4 lP4 LM1 lM1 LM2 lM2 LM3 lM3
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1425 sin                            
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1001 sin     33.59 35.52                    
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1260 dex                            
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1251 sin         37.66 32.52                
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 671 sin                            
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1254 dex 113.79   36.37 32.52 38.53 34.56 35.94 38.38 40.71 38.11 42.39 45.21    
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 651 sin             33.99 41.76            
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 1253 sin 49.34 122.8 14.38 18.43 16.34 20.3 18.6 22.45 24.02 26.6 26.26 28.7    
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 1153 sin                         23.18 26.1
Palaeotragus sp. SIT 1511 sin 54.26   20.71 15.64 18.54 18.16 17.76 20.26            
Lower permanent dentition                  
Incisors                  
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex LI3 II3 LC Icmax Icmin                  
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 1252 dex     13.87 16.23 11.9                  
Palaeotragus sp. SIT 1119 dex 12.77 16.72                        
Premolars and molars
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex P2-P4 P2-M3 LP2 lP2 LP3 lP3 LP4 lP4 LM1 lM1 LM2 lM2 LM3 lM3
Palaeotragus sp. SIT 700 sin 58.83 140.97 17.6 9.6 19.99 12.43 21.66 13.61 23.85 15.56 24 15.99 35.39 15.9
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1429 dex                 48.77 32.75        

APPENDIX 2.

Measurements of post-cranial elements of the front limb of Giraffidae from Thermopigi. Sin: left; Dex: right; L: length; I: width; APD: antero-posterior diameter; TD: transverse diameter; prox: proximal; dia: diaphysis; dis: distal; t.s.: tuberculum supraglenoidale; g.c.: glenoid cavity; neck: neck of scapula (collum scapulae); r: radius; r-u: radius-ulna; H: maximum height of magnum-capitatum; h: minimum height of magnum-capitatum. All measurements are in millimetres (mm).

Scapula    
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex APD
prox
TDt.s. APD
g.c.
TD
g.c.
APD
neck
TD
neck
   
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1034 dex 170.2 167.9 108.6 124.3 108.6 62    
Samotherium major SIT 922 sin 161.5 81 85 106 101.4 29.2    
Humerus        
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex APD
dia
TD
dia
APDdis TDdis        
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 306 dex 72.5 74.2 116.86 159.42        
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 318 dex 98.54 86.05 119.83 168.76        
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 939 dex 53.08 38.71 77.32 78.08        
Samotherium major SIT 313 sin 68.73 68.24   124.26        
Radius-Ulna
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex Lr Lr-u APD
prox
TD
prox
APD
dia
TDdia APDdis TDdis
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 319 sin     96.64 157.71 77.1 110.02    
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 937 sin     74.9 149.76 52.5 88.26 68.26 133.37
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 1256 dex 568   44.53 83.21 34.47 46.36 51.51 67.7
Samotherium major SIT 312 sin 675 780 74.49 126.11 51.61 70.76 80.8 101.69
Samotherium major SIT 1020 sin 615 760 86.74 135.92        
Samotherium major SIT 1352 sin     66.29 133.14        
Magnum-capitatum        
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex L I H h        
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 542 dex 77.26 58.43 37 26.8        
Metacarpus
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex L APD
prox
TD
prox
APD
dia
TDdia APDdis TDdis TDprox/APDprox
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 863 dex       52.15 76.79      
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1043 sin 463.79 76.2 129.26 63.49 77.7 67.19 116.22 1.7
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 920 dex 455.79 63.88 102.87 47.41 59.32 59.78 99.02 1.61
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 300 sin           56.94 101.08  
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1254 sin 462.79 60.82 104.64 51.43 65.31 55.22 96.39 1.72
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 303 dex       32.3 33.91 35.88 56.03  
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 302 sin 475.79 42.93 64.44 35.46 34.64 38.45 64.96 1.50
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 431 dex           37.35 55.05  
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 309 sin   44.79   34.8 31.26      
Samotherium major SIT 314 dex 485.79 64.34 100.17 42.57 58.16 57.46 96.16 1.56

APPENDIX 3.

Measurements of post-cranial elements of the hind limb of Giraffidae from Thermopigi. Sin: left; Dex: right; L: length; APD: antero-posterior diameter; TD: transverse diameter; prox: proximal; dia: diaphysis; dis: distal; H: height; lat: lateral; med: medial; Hmax: maximum height; Hmin: distance between the sustentaculum tali and the tuber calcanei; tuber: tuber calcanei; H1: Height of the cubonavicular on the level of the medial astragalar surface; H2: Height of the cubonavicular on the level of the lateral astragalar surface. All measurements are in millimetres (mm).

Tibia
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex APD
prox
TD
prox
APDdia TDdia APDdis TDdis
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1255 dex     56.95 83.97 90.3 120
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 316 sin     56 84.47 88.1 124
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 992 dex         90.18 123.05
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 317 sin 121.63 166.51 64.05 82.79    
Malleolus      
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex APD TD H      
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 992 dex 75.13   39.65      
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1002 sin 78.66 38.02 43.47      
Astragalus
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex Llat Lmed APDprox Tdprox APDdis TDdis
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1005 sin 124.2 110.54 64.08 76.13 60.45 81.17
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1109 sin   111.11     47.26 68.83
Calcaneus
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex Hmax Hmin APDmax TDmax APDtuber TDtuber
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 315 sin 245.04 164.74 100.91 70.07 55.67  
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1004 sin     107.55 79.1    
Cubonavicular
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex Hmax APDmed APDmax TD H1 H2
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1059 sin 77.32 92.69 105.46 100.92 31.25 39.55
Metatarsus
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex L APDprox TDprox APDdia TDdia TDprox/APDprox
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 301 dex   84.61 88.83 59.74 56.83 1.05
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 938 sin   106.18 103.72 66.19 55.49 0.98
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 307 sin 497.79   47.14 29.54 30.53  
Palaeotragus rouenii SIT 970 dex   53.17   41.02 32.22  
Proximal Phalanx  
Taxon Inv. Number Sin/Dex L APDprox TDprox APDdis TDdis  
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 1250 dex 107.56   54.35 32.61 50.57  
Samotherium major SIT 310 dex 120.95 51.38 48.68 32.5 42.6  
Samotherium major SIT 311 sin   47.5 50.28 34.43 36.9  
Distal Phalanx      
Taxon Inv. Number Locality Sin/Dex L H      
Helladotherium duvernoyi SIT 541 Thermopigi dex 101.29 57.3      

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