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TABLE 1. List of the Khok Sung vertebrate fauna [after Claude et al. (2011), Martin et al. (2012), Suraprasit et al. (2015, 2016)].

Mammalia
Proboscidea
  Stegodontidae  
    Stegodon cf. orientalis
  Elephantidae  
    Elephas sp.
Perissodactyla
  Rhinocerotidae  
    Rhinoceros sondaicus
    Rhinoceros unicornis
Artiodactyla
  Bovidae  
    Bos sauveli
    Bos gaurus
    Bubalus arnee
    Capricornis sumatraensis
  Cervidae  
    Axis axis
    Rucervus eldii
    Rusa unicolor
  Suidae  
    Sus barbatus
Primates
  Cercopithecidae  
    Macaca sp.
Carnivora
  Hyaenidae  
    Crocuta crocuta ultima
  Canidae  
    Cuon sp.
Reptilia
Testudines
  Geoemydidae  
    Batagur cf. trivittata
    Heosemys annandalii
    Heosemys cf. grandis
    Malayemys sp.
  Trionychidae  
    Chitra sp.
    cf. Amyda sp.
Crocodilia
  Gavialidae  
    Gavialis cf. bengawanicus
  Crocodylidae  
    Crocodylus cf. siamensis
Squamata
  Varanidae  
    Varanus sp.
  Boidae  
    Python sp.
Actinopterygii
  Siluridae indet.  
Aves
Galliformes indet.  

 

 

 

 

TABLE 2. Details of the five fossil teeth collected from unit F for ESR dating purpose.

Lab code Collection number Description
3545 DMR-KS-05-03-00-107 Molar fragment of Stegodon cf. orientalis
3546 DMR-KS-05-03-28-13 Left M3 of Bubalus arnee
3547 DMR-KS-05-03-31-5 Right M1 of Bubalus arnee
3548 DMR-KS-05-04-01-7 Right P3 fragment of Bos sauveli
3549 DMR-KS-05-03-23-2 Left M1 or M2 of Bos sauveli

 

 

TABLE 3. ESR results derived from the dating analyses of the six tooth samples. Note that samples 3546A and 3546B belong to the same tooth. Measurement precision is expressed as the mean coefficient of variation of the ESR intensities derived from all the aliquots of a given sample after the three repeated measurements. De precision is the variability of the De values derived from the repeated measurements of a given sample. The final De error is a combination of the fitting error (see Figure 4) and the error on the calibration of the irradiation source (2.3%).

Sample Measurement
precision
(%)
DE
precision
(%)
Adj. r-Square DE value
(Gy)
Dmax/DE
3545 1.0 0.8 0.9972 73.2 ± 4.2 8.8
3546A 0.8 2.0 0.9988 99.4 ± 4.3 6.5
3546B 0.9 0.5 0.9990 131.5 ± 5.1 7.6
3547 0.9 0.7 0.9983 135.7 ± 6.3 7.4
3548 0.5 0.3 0.9983 313.0 ± 13.1 6.4
3549 0.9 0.6 0.9988 124.0 ± 4.9 8.1

 

 

 

 

TABLE 4. Radioelement concentrations obtained from the ICP-MS analyses of several samples taken from the raw sediment of unit F and from the crust attached to the fossil bones. Minimum, maximum and mean values and associated one standard error are displayed. The corresponding coefficients of variation are displayed in parenthesis.

Sample ID Associated fossil remain U (ppm) Th (ppm) K (ppm)
Sediment samples
#s1 Turtle plate 1.18 ± 0.08 2.79 ± 0.13 0.25 ± 0.01
#s2 Gavialis plate 7.98 ± 0.29 1.99 ± 0.10 0.31 ± 0.01
#s3 Stegodon foot bone 8.28 ± 0.30 2.74 ± 0.12 0.30 ± 0.01
#s4 Stegodon cf. orientalis vertebra 2.49 ± 0.11 2.37 ± 0.11 0.40 ± 0.02
#s5 Stegodon cf. orientalis vertebra 1.78 ± 0.09 2.45 ± 0.11 0.37 ± 0.01
#s6 Bubalus arnee horn core 8.69 ± 0.31 5.66 ± 0.24 0.58 ± 0.02
#s7 Bubalus arnee vertebra 0.96 ± 0.08 2.48 ± 0.11 0.26 ± 0.01
#s8 Large bovid long bone 1.44 ± 0.09 3.71 ± 0.16 0.43 ± 0.02
#s9 Rhinoceros unicornis calcaneus 3.05 ± 0.13 1.75 ± 0.09 0.45 ± 0.02
#s10 Mandible of cervid 2.47 ± 0.11 2.71 ± 0.12 0.27 ± 0.01
#s11 Skull of Bubalus arnee 2.75 ± 0.12 3.06 ± 0.14 0.46 ± 0.02
#s12 Skull of Bubalus arnee 2.87 ± 0.12 2.73 ± 0.12 0.36 ± 0.01
#s13 Large bovid vertebra 12.48 ± 0.44 3.31 ± 0.15 0.41 ± 0.02
Range 0.96-8.69 1.75-5.66 0.25-0.58
Mean and standard error 4.34 ± 1.02
(23.6%)
2.90 ± 0.27
(9.3%)
0.37 ± 0.03
(7.1%)
Sample ID Associated fossil remain (sediment sample) U (ppm) Th (ppm) K (ppm)
Crust samples
#c1 Stegodon cf. orientalis vertebra (#s4) 0.58 ± 0.07 2.09 ± 0.10 0.34 ± 0.01
#c2 Stegodon cf. orientalis vertebra (#s4) 0.55 ± 0.07 2.21 ± 0.10 0.33 ± 0.01
#c3 Stegodon cf. orientalis vertebra (#s5) 1.92 ± 0.10 7.79 ± 0.33 0.63 ± 0.02
#c4 Large bovid long bone (#s8) 0.78 ± 0.07 1.68 ± 0.09 0.37 ± 0.01
Range 0.55-1.92 1.68-7.79 0.33-0.63
Mean and standard error 1.02 ± 0.32
(32.0%)
4.03 ± 1.45
(36.1%)
0.43 ± 0.07
(16.4%)

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 5. Data inputs for the combined US-ESR age calculations. Note that samples 3546A and 3546B belong to the same tooth. Apparent U-series ages with 2-σ errors are also provided in italics. Key: n/a = not applicable; (1) after Grün and Katzenberger-Apel (1994); (2) A 10% error was assumed; (3) assumed value (note the impact of this parameter is minimum: by considering removed thicknesses of between 20 and 60 µm, the resulting age varies by <1%); (4) used for beta dose rate evaluation only: these values correspond to 75% of the mean concentrations obtained from the crust samples and 25% of the mean concentrations derived from the sediment samples. All errors are given at a 1-σ confidence level.

SAMPLE 3545 3546A 3546B 3547 3548 3549
Enamel
Dose (Gy) 73.2 ± 4.2 99.4 ± 4.3 131.5 ± 5.1 135.7 ± 6.3 313 ± 13.1 124.0 ± 4.9
U (ppm) 0.414 ± 0.084 0.109 ± 0.035 0.109 ± 0.035 0.158 ± 0.049 0.508 ± 0.074 0.391 ± 0.580
234 U/ 238 U 1.802 ± 0.008 1.799 ± 0.011 1.799 ± 0.011 1.722 ± 0.012 1.581 ± 0.010 1.837 ± 0.014
230 Th/ 234 U 0.480 ± 0.004 0.352 ± 0.006 0.352 ± 0.006 0.399 ± 0.050 0.500 ± 0.014 0.356 ± 0.009
Apparent U-series age (ka) 67.5 ± 1.6 45 ± 7 45 ± 7 53.5 ± 1.7 72.0 ± 5.4 46.3 ± 0.9
Alpha Efficiency (1) 0.13 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02
Water content (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0
Initial enamel thickness (μm) (2) 4600 ± 800 1360 ± 160 1360 ± 160 960 ± 270 1100 ± 220 960 ± 70
Tissue 1 (dentine)
U (ppm) 66.6 ± 5.9 1.88 ± 0.07 1.88 ± 0.07 37.7 ± 8.1 169.2 ± 8.7 67.1 ± 5.3
234 U/238 U 1.811 ± 0.003 1.735 ± 0.006 1.735 ± 0.006 1.691 ± 0.001 1.624 ± 0.001 1.852 ± 0.001
230 Th/234 U 0.133 ± 0.001 0.128 ± 0.002 0.128 ± 0.002 0.122 ± 0.001 0.526 ± 0.001 0.12 ± 0.001
Apparent U-series age (ka) 15.4 ± 0.1 14.7 ± 0.6 14.7 ± 0.6 14.1 ± 0.1 76.9 ± 0.4 13.8 ± 0.1
Water (%) 20 ± 10 20 ± 10 20 ± 10 20 ± 10 20 ± 10 20 ± 10
Removed enamel thickness (μm)(2, 3) 100 ± 30 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10
Tissue 2
U (ppm) n/a n/a 158.1 ± 8.9 n/a n/a n/a
234 U/238 U n/a n/a 1.774 ± 0.001 n/a n/a n/a
230 Th/234 U n/a n/a 0.237 ± 0.001 n/a n/a n/a
Apparent U-series age (ka) n/a n/a 28.9 ± 0.1 n/a n/a n/a
Water (%) n/a n/a 20 ± 10 n/a n/a n/a
Removed enamel thickness (μm)(2, 3) n/a n/a 30 ± 10 n/a n/a n/a
Sediment
U (ppm)(4) 2.64 ± 0.17 2.64 ± 0.17 2.64 ± 0.17 2.64 ± 0.17 2.64 ± 0.17 2.64 ± 0.17
Th (ppm) (4) 2.80 ± 0.09 2.80 ± 0.09 2.80 ± 0.09 2.80 ± 0.09 2.80 ± 0.09 2.80 ± 0.09
K (%) (4) 0.34 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.07
Water (%) 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10
Removed thickness (μm)(2, 3) 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 - 30 ± 10 30 ± 10 30 ± 10
Depth (m) 5 ± 1 5 ± 1 5 ± 1 5 ± 1 5 ± 1 5 ± 1

 

 

 

 

TABLE 6. Data outputs from the combined US-ESR age calculations. Note that samples 3546A and 3546B belong to the same tooth. Scenario A corresponds to the use of a gamma dose rate of 658 ± 160 µGy/a, while scenario B is based on 342 ± 63 µGy/a instead. Key: p-enamel, p-tissue1 (dentine) and p-tissue2 correspond to the uptake parameter values calculated for each dental tissue as in Grün et al. (1988). Post-Rn equilibrium was assumed in dental tissues and sediment. All errors are given at a 1σ confidence level.

SAMPLE 3545 3546A 3546B 3547 3548 3549
Scenario A
Internal dose rate (μGy/a) - 14 ± 6 14 ± 6 21 ± 9 90 ± 53 54 ± 16
Beta dose rate, tissue 1 (dentine) (μGy/a) - 4 ± 0 3 ± 0 118 ± 40 999 ± 393 175 ± 41
Beta dose rate, sediment or tissue 2 (μGy/a) 13 ± 3 44 ± 9 295 ± 91 61 ± 17 54 ± 13 61 ± 12
Gamma dose rate (μGy/a) 658 ± 160 658 ± 160 658 ± 160 658 ± 160 658 ± 160 658 ± 160
Cosmic dose rate (μGy/a) 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12
Total dose rate (μGy/a) - 830 ± 160 1069 ± 184 968 ± 166 1911 ± 427 1058 ± 166
p-enamel - 0.35 0.41 0.31 -0.03 0.27
p-tissue 1 (dentine) - 0.98 1.99 0.00 -0.16 1.61
p-tissue 2 - - 1.87 - - -
Combined US-ESR age (ka) age calculation impossible 119 + 36 -20 123 + 30 -21 140 + 35 -21 163 + 47 -29 117 + 25 -16
Combined CSUS-ESR age (ka) 79 ± 16 120 ± 24 133 ± 28 156 ± 31 216 ± 45 135 ± 26
Scenario B
Internal dose rate (μGy/a) 96 ± 31 10 ± 4 9 ± 4 15 ± 6 71 ± 43 37 ± 10
Beta dose rate, dentine (μGy/a) 40 ± 11 3 ± 0 1 ± 0 79 ± 27 794 ± 332 121 ± 24
Beta dose rate, sediment or cement (μGy/a) 13 ± 3 44 ± 9 179 ± 53 61 ± 17 54 ± 13 61 ± 12
Gamma dose rate (μGy/a) 342 ± 63 342 ± 63 342 ± 63 342 ± 63 342 ± 63 342 ± 63
Cosmic dose rate (μGy/a) 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12
Total dose rate (μGy/a) 601 ± 72 509 ± 64 638 ± 83 607 ± 71 1371 ± 341 671 ± 70
p-enamel -0.37 1.66 1.84 1.50 0.59 1.43
p-tissue 1 (dentine) 0.00 2.67 4.77 2.91 0.41 3.43
p-tissue 2 - - 4.34 - - -
Combined US-ESR age (ka) 121 + 21 -15 195 + 34 -23 206 + 34 -28 223 + 33 -24 228 + 65 -40 184 +24 -18
Combined CSUS-ESR age (ka) 134 ± 15 197 ± 27 227 ± 34 252 ± 34 351 ± 52 219 ± 29

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