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Direct ESR dating of the Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage from Khok Sung locality, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast Thailand

TABLE S1. Lithologic descriptions of the Khok Sung sand pit in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

Lithostratigraphic unit Thickness (cm) Sedimentary structure Sedimentary composition
(e.g., color, texture, sorting, roundness)
A 10-15 Homogeneous bedding Dark brownish-silty mud, homogeneous texture, very poor sorting, abundant plant remains (root, root traces, wood fragments).
B 80-100 Horizontal bedding Brownish-silty mud, very poor sorting, plant remains (root and wood fragments)
C 100-150 Slickenside Brownish yellow to dark brownish color, fine-sandy mud with humic substances, very poor sorting, black Mn and Fe isolites, carbonate concretions and plant remains (about 20%).
D 120-220 Fining upward sequence, trough and tabular cross-lamination Light brownish to dark brownish color, fine to coarse sand, well sorting, sub-rounded to rounded shape, plant remains (root and wood fragments).
E 80-100 Fining upward sequence, high angle planar and trough cross-lamination Light pinkish gray to dark gray color, fine to medium sand, moderate to well sorting, subangular to subrounded shape, gray carbonate mud clasts, mud lenses, abundant petrified wood fragments and trunks.
F 50-70 Horizontal bedding, fining upward sequence Gray to dark gray color, coarse to very coarse sand and matrix-supported gravel (quartz and silicified rocky grains), well sorting, sub-rounded to rounded shape, layered silty-muddy lenses interbedded at the upper part, plant (leaves and seeds at the silty mud layers) and vertebrate remains (abundant at the lowermost part).
G 10-20 Horizontal bedding, coarsening upward sequence Gray to dark gray color, grained supported gravel (rich calcareous mud clasts, slightly quartz and silicified rocky grains, 1-3 cm in sizes), very poor sorting, sub-angular to sub-rounded shape.
H 80-100 Horizontal bedding, fining upward sequence Dark gray silty mud, moderate to well sorting, interbedded fine-sandy lenses, plant remains (abundant at the upper part).
I 25-80 Fining upward sequence with underlying sharp contact, trough cross-lamination Pinkish gray fine to medium sand, well sorting, sub-angular to sub-rounded shape, and gray to dark gray grained supported gravel at the lowermost part (slightly calcareous mud clasts, abundant quartz and silicified rocky grains, 1-3 cm in sizes), poor to very poor sorting, sub-angular to sub-rounded shape.

 

 

 

TABLE S2. ESR data collected from the six samples. Fitting results derived from the use of Dmax = 4019 Gy are given for comparison. Note that the De errors used for age calculation includes an additional 2.3% error on the gamma source dose rate (Table 3 and Table 5).

Sample D max
(Gy)
D E value
(Gy)
D max /D E Adj.
r-Square
D max
(Gy)
D E value
(Gy)
D max /D E Adj.
r-Square
D E
ratio
3545 642 73.2 ± 3.9 8.8 0.9972 4019 72.0 ± 1.8 55.8 0.9987 1.02
3546A 642 99.4 ± 3.6 6.5 0.9988 4019 101.7 ± 1.7 39.5 0.9994 0.98
3546B 1005 131.5 ± 4.1 7.6 0.9990 4019 136.6 ± 2.8 29.4 0.9991 0.96
3547 1005 135.7 ± 5.5 7.4 0.9983 4019 143.1 ± 3.4 28.1 0.9988 0.95
3548 2009 313.0 ±11.4 6.4 0.9983 4019 313.0 ± 7.7 12.8 0.9988 1.00
3549 1005 124.0 ± 4.2 8.1 0.9988 4019 132.6 ± 3.1 30.4 0.9988 0.94

 

 

TABLE S3. Initial combined US-ESR dating results obtained from using a gamma dose rate derived from mean concentration values of the 13 sediment samples.

SAMPLE 3545 3546A 3546B 3547 3548 3549
Internal dose rate (μGy/a) 110 ± 35 12 ± 5 11 ± 4 18 ± 7 80 ± 49 44 ± 13
Beta dose rate, tissue 1 (dentine) (μGy/a) 39 ± 11 3 ± 0 2 ± 0 92 ± 31 884 ± 351 151 ± 31
Beta dose rate, sediment or tissue 2 (μGy/a) 13 ± 3 44 ± 9 224 ± 63 61 ± 17 54 ± 13 61 ± 12
Gamma dose rate (μGy/a) 470 ± 79 470 ± 79 470 ± 79 470 ± 79 470 ± 79 470 ± 79
Cosmic dose rate (μGy/a) 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12 109 ± 12
Total dose rate (μGy/a) 742 ± 87 639 ± 79 816 ± 101 751 ± 85 1598 ± 363 836 ± 86
p-enamel -0.64 0.97 1.07 0.89 0.28 0.81
p-tissue 1 (dentine) 0.00 1.66 3.36 2.09 0.13 2.32
p-tissue 2 - - 3.01 - - -
Combined US-ESR age (ka) 98 +16 -12 155 +26 -18 161 +24 -21 180 +26 -19 195 + 51 -32 148 +19 -14
Combined CSUS-ESR age (ka) 105 ± 15 156 ± 21 176 ± 25 202 ± 27 280 ± 41 175 ± 23

 

FIGURE S1. Pictures of the cross-sections from the five fossil teeth analysed by LA-ICP-MS analyses (ablation spots are visible). The same scale applies to all pictures.

 s sfigure1

 

 

FIGURE S2. Impact of the water content on the calculated US-ESR ages. Age results obtained for 20% water in dentine and 30% water in sediment are taken as references. Simulations were performed for the 6 samples with 5, 10, 15 % water in dentine. Mean value and associated standard deviation (vertical error bar) were extracted and compared with reference values. A similar procedure was employed for the water content in sediment (simulations performed with 10 and 20% water).

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