Home

Article Search

TABLE 1. Basic statistics of La Brea TMTs of Athene cunicularia. SD: Standard Deviation; CV: Coefficient of Variation; N: sample size; TMT: tarsometatarsus.

Character Age
(ka)
N Mean
(mm)
SD
(mm)
CV
Length 29 12 48.60 1.41 2.90
  18 26 47.11 1.58 3.35
  14 3 49.27 2.25 4.57
  9 33 48.09 1.78 3.71
  0 17 46.64 3.58 7.68
Midshaft transverse width 29 12 2.85 0.17 6.08
  18 26 2.75 0.25 9.23
  14 3 2.60 0.10 3.85
  9 33 2.77 0.21 7.49
  0 17 2.85 0.39 13.83
Midshaft depth (antero-posterior) 29 12 2.71 0.22 8.10
  18 26 2.41 0.28 11.51
  14 3 2.57 0.12 4.50
  9 33 2.38 0.27 11.30
  0 17 2.84 0.51 18.07

 

 

TABLE 2. Basic statistics of La Brea TMTs of Asio otus. SD: Standard Deviation; CV: Coefficient of Variation; N: sample size; TMT: tarsometatarsus.

Character Age
(ka)
N Mean
(mm)
SD
(mm)
CV
Length 29 23 45.26 1.48 3.27
  21 1 42.40 NA NA
  18 47 44.18 1.65 3.74
  16 1 43.20 NA NA
  14 11 44.45 1.34 3.02
  11 3 45.13 1.44 3.18
  9 74 44.40 1.76 3.97
  0 8 44.29 1.70 3.84
Midshaft transverse width 29 23 4.71 0.37 7.92
  21 1 5.00 NA NA
  18 47 4.54 0.29 6.49
  16 1 5.20 NA NA
  14 11 4.60 0.33 7.14
  11 3 5.00 0.10 2.00
  9 74 4.60 0.24 5.26
  0 8 4.51 0.34 7.63
Midshaft depth (antero-posterior) 29 23 3.36 0.30 9.06
  21 1 3.00 NA NA
  18 47 3.29 0.33 10.00
  16 1 3.60 NA NA
  14 11 3.23 0.21 6.36
  11 3 3.37 0.21 6.18
  9 74 3.23 0.27 8.32
  0 8 3.46 0.13 3.76

 

 

TABLE 3. Mann-Whitney U tests for each dimension of TMTs for Athene cunicularia, comparing measurements from each time interval to the rest of the pooled samples; jackknife method was used instead of straight pooled variation due to highly uneven sample sizes. Bold face indicates results that are significantly different at p < 0.05 with Bonferroni correction applied. The significant differences given by this test are consistent with the significance levels reported by the Kruskal-Wallis test (df = 4). Corrected significance level: p < 0.01. Depth and robustness measurements were significantly different from pooled samples for the 9 ka and modern samples.

Age
(ka)
Length Width Depth Robustness
U p U p U p U p
29 624.5 0.078 597.5 0.145 692 0.010 639.5 0.053
18 630 0.059 823.5 0.852 652 0.089 733 0.327
14 187.5 0.221 59 0.103 152 0.663 96 0.430
9 1090.5 0.272 905.5 0.670 626 0.006 596.5 0.003
0 504.5 0.207 651.5 0.821 915 0.004 972 0.001

 

 

 

TABLE 4. Mann-Whitney U tests for each dimension of TMTs for Asio otus, comparing measurements from each time interval to the rest of the pooled samples; jackknife method was used instead of straight pooled variation due to highly uneven sample sizes. Corrected significance level: p < 0.00625. No differences were significant by either test.

Age
(ka)
Length Width Depth Robustness
U p U p U p U p
29 2202 0.014 2029.5 0.093 2065 0.065 2018.5 0.106
21 18.5 0.183 152.5 0.155 27 0.244 105 0.665
18 2456 0.171 2293.5 0.051 2919 0.789 2759 0.767
16 41.5 0.392 163 0.101 151 0.163 164 0.099
14 875 0.944 819.5 0.779 736 0.411 776.5 0.579
11 323.5 0.366 450.5 0.015 293 0.587 382 0.109
9 3384 0.765 3456 0.945 2788 0.026 2916 0.073
0 606.5 0.806 542.5 0.467 928 0.031 786 0.279

 

 

TABLE 5. Time-series analysis, given in Akaike weights, for Athene cunicularia. GRW: general random walk; URW: unidirectional random walk; for “strict stasis” definition, see Hunt et al. (2015). The favored model for each time series is shown in bold face. Strict stasis was preferred for length and width measurements. Depth measurements fit best as ordinary stasis (i.e., true mean not constrained) due to the larger measurements in the 0 ka group. Robustness, derived from the combination of the three measurements, favored an unbiased random walk model.

  GRW URW Stasis Strict stasis
Length 0 0.076 0.146 0.778
Width 0 0.055 0.085 0.86
Depth 0 0.422 0.561 0.017
Robustness 0 0.613 0.353 0.035

 

 

TABLE 6. Time-series analysis, given in Akaike weights, for Asio otus. GRW: general random walk; URW: unidirectional random walk; for “strict stasis” definition, see Hunt et al. (2015). The favored model for each time series is shown in bold face. All time series best fit a strict stasis model except width, which favored ordinary stasis due to the large difference in the 12 ka sample.

  GRW URW Stasis Strict stasis
Length 0.003 0.089 0.102 0.807
Width 0.001 0.08 0.919 0
Depth 0.003 0.35 0.56 0.088
Robustness 0  0.068 0.107 0.825

logo smallPalaeontologia Electronica
Webmaster
1998–2019
22 years of electronic palaeontology

PE is archived by CLOCKSS and LOCKSS programs.