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TABLE 1. Taxonomic composition and diversity of European latest Miocene and earliest Pliocene (MN13 and MN 14) localities. Only localities with at least five described taxa are included. Abbreviation: MTN, Minimum Total Number of Species.

  Albanerpetontidae Urodela Anura Testudines Crocodylia non-snake Squamata Serpentes References
Maramena (Greece), MN 13/14 (MTN = 30) - 6 (Cryptobranchidae indet.; Salamandrina sp.; Lissotriton sp. [L. vulgaris group]; Lissotriton sp.; Ommatotriton sp.; Salamandra sp.) 3 (Latonia sp.; Hyla sp.; Pelophylax sp.) 2 (Mauremys aristotelica; ?Testudinidae indet.) - 9 (Agaminae indet.; Lacertidae indet.; ?Lacertidae indet.; aff. Palaeocordylus sp.; ?Scincidae indet.; Anguis sp.; Ophisaurus sp. [5 morphotypes]; Pseudopus sp.; Varanus sp.) 10 (Scolecophidia indet.; Periergophis micros gen. et sp. nov.; Paraxenophis spanios gen et sp. nov.; Hierophis cf. hungaricus; “Colubrinae” indet. [morphotype 1]; Natrix aff. rudabanyaensis; Natrix sp.; Naja sp.; cf. Micrurus sp.; “Oriental Vipers” complex indet.) Gad 1990; Richter, 1995; Szyndlar, 1995; this paper
Ano Metochi (Greece), MN 13 (MTN 8) - - - - - 3 (Lacertidae indet.; aff. Palaeocordylus sp.; Ophisaurus sp.) 5 (Scolecophidia indet.; cf. Dolichophis sp.; “Colubrinae” indet.; Natrix sp.; Viperidae indet. [formely part of Serpentes indet.; identified herein]) Georgalis et al., 2017a; this paper
Polgárdi (Hungary), MN 13 (MTN = 18) - - 1 (Latonia gigantea) 2 (Emydidae indet.; Testudo kalksburgensis) - 7 (Lacerta cf. viridis; Lacertidae indet. [A]; Lacertidae indet. [B]; Anguis polgardiensis; Ophisaurus sp.; Pseudopus pannonicus; Varanus cf. hofmanni) 8 (Coronella miocenica; Elaphe kormosi; Elaphe praelongissima; Elaphe szyndlari; Hierophis hungaricus; Telescopus sp.; Natrix cf. longivertebrata; Macrovipera gedulyi; Kormos, 1911; Bolkay, 1913; Fejérváry-Lángh, 1923; Szunyoghy, 1932; Szalai, 1934; Młynarski, 1966; Szyndlar, 1991b; Venczel, 1994, 1998, 2006; Venczel and Várdai, 2000
Osztramos (Hungary), MN 14 (MTN = 20) - - 7 (Latonia gigantea; Bombina sp.; Pliobatrachus cf. langhae; Eopelobates sp.; Bufo bufo; Bufotes viridis; Rana sp.) - - 4 (Anguis cf. fragilis; Pseudopus pannonicus; Gekkonidae indet.; Lacerta sp.) 9 (Coronella cf. austriaca; Elaphe kormosi; Elaphe prealongissima; Hierophis hungaricus; Eryx sp.; Natrix longivertebrata; cf. Neonatrix sp.; Vipera cf. ammodytes; Vipera cf. berus Venczel 2001
Moncucco Torinese (Italy), MN 13 (MTN = 21) 1 (Albanerpeton sp.) 2 (Chelotriton sp.; Lissotriton sp.) 5 (Latonia sp.; Pelobates sp.; Bufotes gr. viridis; Pelophylax sp.; Hyla gr. arborea) 2 (Mauremys sp.; Testudo sp.) 1 (Crocodylia indet.) 5 (cf. Euleptes sp.; Agamidae indet.; cf. Lacerta sp.; Anguinae indet.; Amphisbaenia indet.) 5 (Scolecophidia indet.; Eryx sp.; “Colubrinae” indet. [A]; “Colubrinae” indet. [B]; “Oriental Vipers” complex indet.) Colombero et al., 2017
Monticino (Italy), MN 13 (MTN = 16) - - 3 (Latonia sp.; Bufotes viridis; Pelophylax gr. ridibundus; 1 (Testudo sp.) 1 (Crocodylia indet.) 8 (Gekkonidae indet.; Agamidae indet.; cf. Lacerta sp.; Anguis sp.; Ophisaurus sp.; Pseudopus cf. pannonicus; Varanus sp.; Amphisbaenia indet.) 3 (cf. Eryx sp.; “Colubrinae” indet.; Natricinae indet.) Kotsakis, 1989; Rook and Delfino, 2007; Rook et al., 2015
Verduno (Italy), MN 13 (MTN = 11) - - 2 (Bufo s.l. sp.; Rana s.l. sp.) 2 (Geoemydidae indet.; Testudo sp.) - 5 (Agamidae indet.; Anguinae indet.; Lacertidae indet.; Varanus sp.; Amphisbaenia indet.) 2 (Scolecophidia indet.; “Colubrinae” indet.) Colombero et al., 2014
Ciabòt Cagna (Italy), MN 13 (MTN = 6) - - 1 (Anura indet. [originally identified as Palaeobatrachidae indet. by Cavallo et al. 1993) - - 3 (Anguidae indet.; Blanidae indet.; Squamata indet.) 2 (Colubridae indet.; Eryx sp.) Cavallo and Repetto, 1988; Cavallo et al., 1993
Solnechnodolsk (Russia), MN 13 (MNT = 8) - - 1 (Pelobates aff. praefuscus) - - 7 (Lacerta cf. trilineata; Heremites cf. vittatus; Anguis cf. rarus; Ophisaurus cf. spinari; Ophisaurus sp.; Varanus sp.; Amphisbaenia indet.) - Syromyatnikova, 2019; Čerňanský et al., 2018; Čerňanský and Syromyatnikova, 2019, in press
Algora (Spain), MN 13 (MTN = 5) - - - - - - 5 (Scolecophidia indet.; Elaphe algorensis; Hispanophis coronelloideus; Naja iberica; Viperidae indet.) Szyndlar, 1985

 

 

TABLE 2. List of amphibian and reptile taxa from Maramena including ecophysiological indices for applicable taxa and mean annual precipitation. The indices are coloured from dark blue to dark yellow according to the ecological adaptation of the animals, from aquatic to terrestrial, respectively. *The recent mean annual precipitation value is given according to The World Bank Group (http://data.worldbank.org; accessed at 2017 under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence). Index: 1, aquatic; 0.9768, heliophobic; 0.513, semiaquatic; 0.3918, periaquatic; 0.0917, subterranean; 0, heliophilic.

  Taxon Index
Urodela Cryptobranchidae indet. 1
Salamandrina sp. 0,9768
Lissotriton sp. (Lissotriton vulgaris group) 0,3918
Lissotriton sp. 0,3918
Ommatriton sp. 0,3918
Salamandra sp. 0,3918
Anura Latonia sp. 0,3918
Hyla sp. 0,3918
Pelophylax sp. 0,513
Testudines Mauremys aristotelica 1
?Testudinidae indet. 0
non-snake Squamata Agaminae indet. 0
Lacertidae indet. 0
?Lacertidae indet. -
aff. Palaeocordylus sp. 0
?Scincidae indet. 0
Anguis sp. 0,0917
Ophisaurus sp. (morphotype 1) 0
Ophisaurus sp. (morphotype 2) +
Ophisaurus sp. (morphotype 3) +
Ophisaurus sp. (morphotype 4) +
Ophisaurus sp. (morphotype 5) +
Pseudopus sp. 0
Varanus sp. 0
Serpentes Scolecophidia indet. 0,0917
Periergophis micros gen. et sp. nov. -
Paraxenophis spanios gen. et sp. nov. -
Hierophis cf. hungaricus -
“Colubrinae” indet. (morphotype 1) -
Natrix aff. rudabanyaensis -
Natrix sp. -
Naja sp. -
cf. Micrurus sp. 0,0917
“Oriental Vipers” complex indet. -
  Ecophysiological index of the assemblage 0,28
MAP (in mm) 632
MAPrecent* (in mm) 534
MAP/MAPrecent (in %) 118
Error ± (in mm) 252
Climate station Serres

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