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TABLE 1. Distribution of key characters (as currently known) across described piraniid species (except the poorly known A.? plasi) to aid taxonomic recognition. Taxa: P. m.: Pirania muricata; P. e.: Pirania? ericia; P. p.: Pirania? peregrinata; A. a.: Auraeopirania auraeum; A. s.: Auraeopirania sciurucauda; A. py.: Auraeopirania pykitia; A. p.: Auraeopirania pinwyddeni; C. l.: Cannapirania llanfawrensis; C. c.: Cannapirania canna; C. v.: Cannapirania vermiformis; P. g.: Pellipirania gloria.

Character P. m. P. e. P. p. A. a. A. s. A. p. A. py C. l. C. c. C. v. P. g.
Dermal sculpture x                    
Narrowed osculum x x x x x         (x)  
Narrow tubular body x x x x x x x x x x  
Body widens upwards x x                 x
Clearly rounded prostalia bases x         x   x x x x
Open conical prostalia bases x x                  
Curtain-like basal tuft     ? x              
Radiating basal array   x ?   x x          
Irregular basal tuft x           x? x x x  
No radiating fine diacts     x     x          
Extremely dense radiating fine monaxons       x x   x       x
Prostalia not distinct from fine monaxons       x x   x        
Branching x x         x? x?   x  
Distinct marginalia           x x   x x x

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