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TABLE 1. Key cranial characteristics of a variety of istiodactylids. A ‘0’ indicates a character is absent, ‘1’ is present, and ‘-” is unknown. *The anterior tip of the jaw is missing and this is estimated for this calculation. **The tip of the jaw is missing and more teeth were likely present, probably 12 in total. ‘’ I. latidens has 25 teeth in the lower jaw with a tooth positioned medially at the front. Information taken from Howse et al., 2001; Andres and Ji, 2006; Wang et al., 2005, 2011; Lü et al., 2008; Arbour and Currie, 2011; Zhou et al., 2019 and examination of BMNH R8377 (referred specimen of I. latidens) and IVPP V 13288 (holotype of Nurhachius ignaciobritoi).

  L. xingzhe I. latidens I. sinensis Longchenpterus N. ignaciobritoi N. luei Liaoxipterus Hongshanopterus
Dorsal expansion / upturn of anterior rostrum 0 0 1 1 1 1 - -
Length-height ratio of rostrum anterior and ventral to NAOF 0.11* 0.14 0.17 0.09 0.10 0.09 - -
Posterior teeth very well-spaced in the jaw 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
Number of teeth posterior to the NAOF in the upper jaw 1 0 1 0 0 0 - -
Number of teeth in the upper jaw (one side) 9** 12 15 14 9 12 - 17-19
Number of teeth in the lower jaw (one side) 12 12/13’’ 15 13 9 11 13 -
Relatively long and thin symphysis: (over 4:1) 1 0 - 1 0 0 0 -
Long and narrow rami of the mandible in dorsal view (20:1) 1 - - 0 0 - 0 -

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