Home

Article Search

TABLE 1. Measurements of ulna, femur, and tibia lengths in paravian taxa. Ulna, femur, and tibia percentages are of the total length of the combined elements. Taxa are listed in the same order as shown in Figure 4, with avialans listed first followed by non-avialan theropods. Rahonavis is listed twice, once within avialans and once within non-avialan theropods. * = tibiotarsal length; e = estimated. All measurements are in mm. Where multiple specimens of a taxon are known, the largest of the specimens was included. Measurements are based on the following specimens and publications: Anchiornis huxleyi (IVPP V14378; Xu et al., 2009), Archaeopteryx lithographica (NHMUK 37001; CAF), Archaeorhynchus spathula (IVPP V14287; Zhou and Zhang, 2006), Aurornis xui (YFGP-T5197; Godefroit et al., 2013b), Bambiraptor feinbergi (FIP 001; Burnham et al., 2000), Buitreraptor gonzalezorum (MPCA 245; Gianechini et al., 2018), Confuciusornis sanctus (DMNH 2454; Chiappe et al., 2008), Deinonychus antirrhopus (MCZ 4371; Ostrom, 1969), Eosinopteryx brevipenna (YFGP-T5197; Godefroit et al., 2013a), Epidexipteryx hui (IVPP V15471; Zhang et al., 2008), Hongshanornis longicresta (IVPP V14533; Zhou and Zhang, 2006), Jeholornis curvipes (YFGP-yb2; Lefèvre et al., 2014), Longipteryx chaoyangensis (IVPP V12325; Zhou and Zhang, 2006), Mahakala omnogovae (IGM 100/1033; Turner et al., 2007c), Microraptor zhaoensis (CAGS 20-7-004; Hwang et al., 2002), Pengornis houi (IVPP V15336; Zhang et al., 2013), Rapaxavis pani (DMNH D2522; Morschhauser et al., 2010), Sapeornis chaoyangensis (IVPP V12698; Zhou and Zhang, 2006), Serikornis sungei (PMOL-AB00200; Lefèvre et al., 2017), Sinornithoides youngi (IVPP V9612; Russell and Dong, 1993), Sinornithosaurus millenii (IVPP V12811; Xu et al., 1999), Xiaotingia zhengi (STM 27-2; Xu et al., 2011), Yanornis sp. (STM 9-46; Zheng et al., 2014), Yi qi (STM 31-2; Xu et al., 2015), Yixianornis grabaui (IVPP V13631; Clarke et al., 2006), and Zhouornis hani (CNU VB0903; Zhang et al., 2013).

Taxon Ulna length Femur length Tibia length Ulna % Femur % Tibia %
Hongshanornis 24 22 38* 28.6 26.2 45.2
Archaeopteryx 67 58.2 81.6 32.4 28.1 39.5
Yixianornis 5.03 4.1 5.28 34.9 28.5 36.6
Confuciusornis 70 58.5 68.9 35.5 29.6 34.9
Rapaxavis 23.7 19.5 23 35.8 29.5 34.7
Zhouornis 53.8 44 51.6* 36 29.5 34.5
Jeholornis 108 76 94 38.8 27.3 33.8
Rahonavis 132.3 87.6 118.1 39.2 25.9 34.9
Yanornis 86 57 74* 39.6 26.3 34.1
Archaeorhynchus 56 37 42* 41.5 27.4 31.1
Pengornis 70.7 48 50.4 41.8 28.4 29.8
Longipteryx 47 31 32* 42.7 28.2 29.1
Sapeornis 133 80 84* 44.8 26.9 28.3
Sinornithoides 65 140e 197.6* 16.1 34.8 49.1
Mahakala 40e 79 110 17.5 34.5 48
Deinonychus 208 336 368 22.8 36.8 40.4
Serikornis 50.8 67.4 95.2* 23.8 31.6 44.4
Microraptor 53.5 74.4 94.1 24.1 33.5 42.4
Bambiraptor 95 119 168 24.9 31.1 44
Anchiornis 37.1 43.2 67.8* 25 29.2 45.8
Eosinosauropteryx 42 48.5 69.5* 26.3 30.3 43.4
Aurornis 57 66 90.5* 26.7 30.9 42.4
Epidexipteryx 42 51 63 26.9 32.7 40.4
Buitreraptor 107.9 140.2 148.8 27.2 35.3 37.5
Sinornithosaurus 110 148e 125 28.7 38.6 32.6
Yi 88.5e 68e 81.7 37.2 28.5 34.3
Rahonavis 132.3 87.6 118.1 39.2 25.9 34.9

 

TABLE 2. Measurements of the referred partial dentary (FMNH PA 740) of Rahonavis ostromi. All measurements are in mm.

Total length (as preserved) 49.2
Depth (between 2nd and 3rd alveoli) 4.6
Depth (6th alveolus) 4.1
Depth caudal end (as preserved) 5.4
Width (between 2nd and 3rd alveoli) 2.6
Width (6th alveolus) 2.7
Width caudal end (as preserved) 3.2

 

 

TABLE 3. Measurements of the pre-caudal vertebrae of the holotype (UA 8656) of Rahonavis ostromi. Neural spine height is measured from the dorsal margin of the neural canal to the dorsal edge of the neural spine. Maximum vertebral length includes the lengths of the pre- and postzygapophyses and thus may exceed the length of the centrum. All measurements are in mm. Interzygapophyseal length (z-z) = length from the cranial end of the prezygapophysis to the caudal end of the postzygapophysis; NA = not applicable; - = not measurable.

  Cervicodorsal Dorsal
1

Dorsal
2

Dorsal 3 Dorsal 4 Dorsal
5
Dorsal
6
Synsacrum
Centrum length 12.0 10.8 10.7 - - 9.8 9.1 42.3
Centrum height 5.6
(caudal face)
6.2
(caudal face)
6.5
(cranial face)
- - 8.0
(caudal face)
7.4
(caudal face)
8.3
(cranial face of S1)
Centrum width 6.8 7.6 7.8 - - 9.1
(caudal face)
10.1
(caudal face)
10.8
(cranial face of S1)
Neural spine height - 7.4 8.5 - - 9.5 - 6.5
(S1)
Length z-z - 15.5 14.9 14.4 14.1 13.8 - -
Total vertebral height - 17.4 17.9 - - 19.1 - 17.3
(S1)
Neural canal height 4.6 3.8 - - - 2.9 2.7 -
Neural canal width 4.5 3.8 3.2 - - 4.1 4.6 -
Width across pre-zygapophyses - - 7.0 - - - 7.5 -
Width across post-zygapophyses - 5.9 6.2 - - 6.5 - -
Total length vertebra 18.8 15.3 14.8 14.3 13.9 13.3 - -

 

 

TABLE 4. Measurements of the caudal (Cd) vertebrae of the holotype (UA 8656) of Rahonavis ostromi. Neural spine height is measured from the dorsal margin of the neural canal to the dorsal edge of the neural spine. Total vertebral height is either to the dorsal margin of the neural spine, or when that feature is absent, to the dorsal margin of the pre- or postzygapophysis. Interzygapophyseal length is measured from the cranial end of the prezygapophyses to the caudal end of the postzygapophyses. In vertebrae where the zygapophyses overhang the faces of the centrum, this measurement is equivalent to the total vertebral length and is denoted by (z-z). All measurements are in mm. NA= not applicable; - = not measurable.

  Cd1 Cd2 Cd3 Cd4 Cd5 Cd6 Cd7 Cd8 Cd9 Cd10 Cd11 Cd12 Cd13
Length centrum - 6.3 6.4 6.9 8.1 9.4 9.5 12.2 14.9 18.5 22.6 24.7 25.8
Maximum height centrum - - 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.8 4.7 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.1
Maximum width centrum - 6.75 6.4 5.4 5.5 6.9 6.8 6.4 7.0 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.6
Neural spine height - 5.4 5.4 5.0 5.9 3.7 3.5 2.6 2.0 NA NA NA NA
Length zygapophyses-zygapophyses 8.6 8.8 10.1 11.7 13.3 14.3 15.3 18.2 20.4 21.2 23.9 26.9 30.9
Total length vertebra 8.6
(z-z)
8.8
(z-z)
10.1
(z-z)
11.7
(z-z)
13.3
(z-z)
15.0 17.2 20.8 23.4 26.0 27.0 27.2 30.9
(z-z)
Total vertebral height - 12.8 12.6 12.4 11.7 9.0 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.5 8.4 8.5 7.2
Neural canal height - - 2.7 1.9 1.4   1.5 1.5 1.7 - - - -
Neural canal width - - 2.3 2.9 2.2   2.3 2.2 2.1 - - - -
Width between pre-zygapophyses 5.3 6.5 6.7 6.0 5.4 4.5 4.1 4.1 3.6 4.2 5.3 5.6 6.0
Width between post-zygapophyses 5.8 6.3 5.3 4.7 4.0 2.9 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.8 2.7 3.2 3.3
Length transverse process 7.5 7.7 7.4 6.8 5.9 6.0 4.5 4.2 1.7 1.6 NA NA NA
Maximum width across transverse processes - 17.5 18.0 17.0 16.5 14.8 14.8 11.6 7.4 7.4 4.9
(width of centrum)
4.5
(width of centrum)
4.3
(width of centrum)

 

TABLE 5. Measurements of the chevrons of the holotype (UA 8656) of Rahonavis ostromi. Chevrons are numbered according to their number in the series and not their position relative to caudal vertebrae: chevron 1 is located behind Cd2. Pre- and post-articulation lengths are measured from the cranial and caudal margins of the articular facets, respectively. Total length is measured at the proximal end of the chevron. All measurements are in mm. NA = not applicable; - = not measurable.

  Chevron 1 Chevron 2 Chevron 3 Chevron 4 Chevron 5 Chevron 6 Chevron 7 Chevron 8 Chevron 9 Chevron 10 Chevron 11 Chevron 12
Total length (craniocaudal) 4.3 4.6 4.8 7.2 6.9 8.1 12.6 17.9 21.7 23.3 - -
Maximum height (dorsoventral) 8.2 8.1 7.1 7.4 11.6 11.0 7.5 6.1 4.5 3.8 2.8 3.2
Pre-articulation maximum width 6.0 3.6 3.3 2.8 - 2.6 1.8 1.95 4.1 4.6 5.0 5.2
Post-articulation maximum width NA NA 2.2 2.3 2.1 1.8 .8 2.35 2.8 3.8 - 3.7
Pre-articulation length 1.9 3.2 2.4 2.9 2.4 2.7 6.9 11.5 12.4 13.2 12.7 -
Post-articulation length NA NA 1.5 2.4 2.1 3.2 4.7 6.0 7.4 8.9 - -
Articulation width (mediolateral) 4.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 4.0 3.8 4.2 3.7 4.1 3.7 3.3 3.6

 

 

TABLE 6. Measurements of the scapula and forelimb elements of the holotype (UA 8656), the referred ulna FMNH PR 2821, and the referred distal humeri (FMNH PA 746, UA 9604) of Rahonavis ostromi. The two measurements of minimum shaft diameter do not always occur at the same place on the shaft. All measurements are in mm. NA = not applicable; - = not measurable.

  Scapula
(UA 8656)
Ulna
(UA 8656)
Ulna
(FMNH PR 2821)
Radius
(UA 8656)
Humerus
(FMNH PA 746)
Humerus
(UA 9604)
Total length 82.2 132.3 - 126.5 - -
Length of glenoid fossa 8.6 NA NA NA NA NA
Length of coracoid articulation 5.5 NA NA NA NA NA
Depth over glenoid 11.1 NA NA NA NA NA
Width at glenoid 6.9 NA NA NA NA NA
Minimum depth of blade 4.0 NA NA NA NA NA
Length of blade behind glenoid 59.0 NA NA NA NA NA
Length of acromion process 10.2 NA NA NA NA NA
Maximum width acromion process 7.4 NA NA NA NA NA
Minimum shaft circumference NA 18.2 18.2 12.9 26.6 26.9
Minimum shaft diameter craniocaudal NA 5.6 5.3 3.5 5.3 5.4
Minimum shaft diameter dorsoventral (mediolateral) NA 5.1 5.1 3.1 7.8 7.3
Proximal width craniocaudal NA 12.7 11.3 8.8 NA NA
Proximal width dorsoventral NA 8.8 - 5.0 NA NA
Distal width craniocaudal NA 10.8 10.5 7.5 9.0 9.7
Distal width dorsoventral NA 6.7 6.5 4.9 16.2 16.9

 

 

TABLE 7. Measurements of the pelvic girdle elements of the holotype (UA 8656) of Rahonavis ostromi. When left and right elements are present, both measurements are given as left/right. All measurements are in mm. NA = not applicable; - = not measurable; * = composite measurement.

  Ilium Ischium Pubis
Total length 67.1/66.5 27.4/- -/69.1
Length pubic peduncle 14.1/14.1 NA NA
Length preacetabular process 38.3/39.3 NA NA
Length postacetabular process 18.2/18.5 NA NA
Length acetabulum (craniocaudal) 10.6/10.8 NA NA
Width acetabulum (at dorsalmost margin) 3.8/3.8 NA NA
Maximum depth preacetabular process 11.8/12.4 NA NA
Maximum depth postacetabular process 9.9/9.1 NA NA
Depth over acetabulum 10.6/11.0 NA NA
Depth at center of pubic peduncle 15.0/16.2 NA NA
Depth at ischial articulation 13.4/13.1 NA NA
Width m. cuppedicus fossa 5.7/6.3 NA NA
Width brevis shelf 3.4/3.5 NA NA
Length proximal end (craniocaudal) NA 16.0* 16.1*
Minimum shaft length (craniocaudal) NA -/7.5 3.4/3.9
Length pubic apron NA NA -/24.4
Length distal end (craniocaudal) NA 13.7* -/11.4

 

 

TABLE 8. Measurements of hind limb and tarsal elements of the holotype (UA 8656) of Rahonavis ostromi. When left and right elements are present, both measurements are given as left/right. All measurements are in mm. NA = not applicable; - = not measurable.

  Femur Tibia Fibula Astragalus Calcaneum Distal tarsal
Total length
(proximodistal)
87.6/86.9 118.1/- - - 5.4 1.9
Width proximal end (craniocaudal) 8.9/9.6 11.2/- 7.9/- -   7.1
Width proximal end (mediolateral) 14.2/13.6 9.7/- 3.1/- -   5.8
Width distal end
(craniocaudal)
8.6/8.9 3.6/3.8 - 6.3 4.5 NA
Width distal end
(mediolateral)
11.2/11.3 10.2/9.8 - 9.4 1.3 NA
Minimum circumference shaft 18.3/18.3 16.5/- - NA NA NA
Minimum diameter shaft
(mediolateral)
5.3/5.4 5.2/5.0 -/.6
(distal end as preserved)
NA NA NA
Minimum diameter shaft
(craniocaudal)
5.3/5.5 4.2/4.3 - NA NA NA

 

 

TABLE 9. Measurements of pedal elements of the holotype (UA 8656) of Rahonavis ostromi. When left and right elements are present, both measurements are given as left/right. Unguals are measured from the distal tip to the farthest point on the proximodorsal articulation. MT I is measured in the primitive orientation (not reversed). All measurements are in mm. NA = not applicable; - = not measurable.

  MTI I-1 I-u MTII II-1 II-2 II-u MTIII III-1 III-2 III-3 MT IV IV-1 IV-2 IV-3
Total length 8.6/- 10.2 11.1 44.8/43.9 12.8 11.3 22.8 47.8/47.6 19.2 12.9 10.5 44.8/43.1 14.7 9.6 7.3
Width proximal (mediolateral) - 4.5 2.5 3.7/3.8 5.6 5.2 3.6 3.7/3.7 4.7 4.6 3.4 -/4.6 3.9 4.1 3.6
Height proximal (dorsoplantar) - 4.0 5.5 5.5/5.5 4.1 (less broken keel) 4.5 (6.5 with keel) 8.8 5.0/5.4 4.8 4.0 4.4 4.4/4.5 3.4 3.7 3.3
Width distal (mediolateral) 4.2 3.5 1.0 4.9/5.3 5.4 4.1 1.1 4.6/4.7 4.6 4.2 3.1 4.0/4.0 3.9 4.0 3.4
Height distal (dorsoplantar) 2.8 2.6 - 4.1/3.9 4.2 4.8 1.4 4.6/4.5 3.4 3.0 2.8 5.2/5.1 3.2 2.7 2.6
Minimum diameter shaft (mediolateral) NA 2.65 NA 3.2/3.2 3.8 3.7 NA 3.1/3.0 2.6 2.7 2.1 2.5/2.7 2.4 2.7 2.6
Minimum diameter shaft (dorsoplantar) NA 2.1 NA 2.8/2.6 2.8 2.8 NA 2.4/2.5 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.8/2.1 2.5 2.0 2.2

logo smallPalaeontologia Electronica
Webmaster
1998–2021
24 years of electronic palaeontology

PE is archived by CLOCKSS and LOCKSS programs.