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FIGURE 1. Pits and muscle scars present on the dorsal carapace of some brachyuran crabs and referred to in the manuscript, particularly for Tanidromites Schweitzer and Feldmann, 2008a, and Eodromites Patrulius, 1959. Modified after Starzyk (2015b, figure 2.1). Unmarked black circles represent tubercles.

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FIGURE 2. Specimens of the crab Eodromites spp. from the Late Jurassic of Europe. A, F, G, Eodromites grandis (von Meyer, 1857) from the Upper Jurassic (upper Kimmeridgian) coral limestones of Saal an der Donau in southern Germany in dorsal, frontal, and left-lateral views, resp. (SNSB-BSPG 2016 XXI 404). B-E, Holotype of Eodromites bernchrisdomiorum sp. nov. from the Upper Jurassic (lower-middle Oxfordian) deposits of Ogrodzieniec in southern Poland in dorsal, frontal, right-lateral, and orbital views, resp. (I-F/MP/6259/1588/11). E, an oblique view of right orbital structure, primarily the lateral margin with a wide fissure. H-K, Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) Eodromites bernchrisdomiorum sp. nov. from southern Poland in dorsal view (H, I-F/MP/4874/1534/08, Niegowonice, middle-late Oxfordian; I, I-F/MP/6255/1588/11, paratype, Niegowonice, middle-late Oxfordian; J, I-F/MP/6258/1588/11, Ogrodzieniec, early-middle Oxfordian, paratype; K, I-F/MP/1369/1508/08, Bzów, middle Oxfordian). L-O, Holotype of Eodromites polyphemi (Gemmellaro, 1869) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Sicily, Italy, in dorsal, frontal, right-lateral, and left-lateral views, resp. (MGUP-020.18). Scale bar width is 5.0 mm, except for E (1.0 mm).

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FIGURE 3. Length-width ratios versus maximum width of carapaces of Eodromites grandis compared to E. cristinarobinsae sp. nov. (previously identified as E. grandis). Data: Appendix 2.

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FIGURE 4. Specimens of the crab Eodromites cristinarobinsae sp. nov. from the mid-Cretaceous (lower upper Albian) reef limestones of Koskobilo, northern Spain. A-C, dorsal views (holotype MGSB78750, paratype UF 271883, and paratype MAB k3592, resp.). D-F, frontal views (MGSB78750, UF 271883, and MAB k2638, resp.). G, H, right- and left-lateral views (MAB k2950 and MAB k2953, resp.). I, oblique view of lateral part of orbital structure with fissure (MAB k2626); upper orbital margin incomplete; height figure ~1.0 mm. A, D, G, and H colored dark and subsequently coated with ammonium chloride prior to photography; from Klompmaker et al. (2012, figure 5B, H, J, and K, reproduced with permission). Those images are not published under the terms of the CC-BY license of this article. For permission to reuse, please see Klompmaker et al. (2012). Scale bar width equals 1.0 mm.

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FIGURE 5. Specimens of the crab Navarradromites pedroartali Klompmaker et al., 2012, from the mid-Cretaceous (early late Albian) of Koskobilo, northern Spain. A-C, dorsal views (holotype MGSB77711, MAB k3593, and MAB k3591, resp.). D, F, frontal views showing somewhat different rostral tips (MAB k3018 and MAB k3591, resp.). E, K, right-lateral views (MAB k3593 and MAB k3591, resp.). G, H, views of orbital structure with fissure laterally (MAB k3591 and paratype MAB k3182, resp.); height G ~1.0 mm. I, frontal view of damaged upper orbital projection that is wider than tall (paratype MAB k3182). J, lower orbital margin (upper orbital margin is not complete), width figure ~0.5 mm (MAB k3593). A and D colored dark and subsequently coated with ammonium chloride prior to photography; from Klompmaker et al. (2012, figure 8D, I, reproduced with permission). Those images are not published under the terms of the CC-BY license of this article. For permission to reuse, please see Klompmaker et al. (2012). Scale bar width equals 1.0 mm.

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FIGURE 6. Specimens of the crab Nodoprosopon ornatum (von Meyer, 1857) from the Late Jurassic of Central Europe. Specimens originate from the late Kimmeridgian of the Am Saufang quarry near Geisingen, SW Germany (A, C, J); the late Kimmeridgian of Bad Überkingen-Oberböhringen, SW Germany (B); the Tithonian of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria (D-G); and the Oxfordian of Bzów (H) and Ogrodzieniec (I, K), Poland. A, B, D, E, H, I, dorsal views of carapaces (MAB k3620, SMNS 70490/3, NHMW 2014/0194/1007, 1990/0041/3475, 1535-I-F/MP/1535/1509/08, 6281-I-F/MP/6281/1599/12, resp.). Note central rostral spine in A, C, and H. C, F frontal views of carapaces (NHMW 1990/0041/3475, MAB k3620, resp.). G, J, K, left-lateral views (NHMW 1990/0041/3475, MAB k3620, 6281-I-F/MP/6281/1599/12, resp.). Scale bar width equals 2.0 mm.

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FIGURE 7. Holotype specimen of the crab ?Abyssophthalmus dzhafarberdensis (Ilyin, 2005) comb. nov. from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (Tithonian-Berriasian) of Crimea. Scale bar width equals 5.0 mm.

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FIGURE 8. Specimen of the crab Abyssophthalmus cf. A. spinosus (von Meyer, 1842) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria (all except B and C) and specimens of A. spinosus from the Late Jurassic (late Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian) of the Plettenberg quarry, Germany (B, C). A, D-H, dorsal, ventral, right-orbital (shown upside down to better see depth), frontal, left-lateral, and right-lateral views, resp. (NHMW 2014/0194/0952). B, C, dorsal views (MAB k3611 and k3607). Scale bar width is 10.0 mm, except for E (1.0 mm).

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FIGURE 9. Specimens of the crab Planoprosopon aff. P. hystricosus Schweitzer and Feldmann, 2009a, from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria. A, C, dorsal views of carapace (NHMW 2017/0089/0034 and 1990/0041/0805). B, right-lateral view (2017/0089/0034). D, E, frontal views (2017/0089/0034 and 1990/0041/0805). Note the presence of an epicaridean parasite swelling (ichnotaxon Kanthyloma crusta Klompmaker et al., 2014) in the right branchial region in 1990/0041/0805. Scale bar width equals 1.0 mm.

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FIGURE 10. Comparisons between specimens of the mid-Cretaceous crab Rathbunopon obesum (Van Straelen, 1944) from Koskobilo, Spain, and the crab Europrosopon aculeatum (von Meyer, 1857) from Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria (Tithonian, NHMW numbers), and the Kotouc quarry (locality 3 of level 6), Czech Republic (Tithonian, MAB and UF numbers). A, F, H, J, dorsal, frontal, upper orbital, and orbital views of R. obesum (MAB k3600). B, G, dorsal and frontal views of E. aculeatum (NHMW/1990 0041/4059). C, K, dorsal and orbital view of E. aculeatum (NHMW 2007z0149/0005). D, right-lateral view of R. obesum (MAB k3141). E, right-lateral view of E. aculeatum (MAB k3605). I, upper orbital view of E. aculeatum (UF 288756). For approximate size of H and J, see A and F. Scale bar width equals 2.0 mm.

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FIGURE 11. Specimens of the crab Europrosopon aculeatum (von Meyer, 1857) comb. nov. from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Central Europe, all dorsal views. A, C, F, Specimens from Ernstbrunn, Austria (NHMW 1990/0041/3756, 2007z0149/0005, and 1990/0041/2520, resp., previously identified as Prosopon verrucosum by Schweitzer and Feldmann (2009d). B, Specimen (UF 288714) from the Kotouc quarry (locality 3 of level 6), Czech Republic. D, E, Specimens (LPBIII art 279 and LPBIII art 278, resp.) from Waypoint 162, Romania, previously identified as Prosopon barbulescuae (modified from Schweitzer et al., 2018, figure 13, reproduced with permission). Those images are not published under the terms of the CC-BY license of this article. For permission to reuse, please see Schweitzer et al. (2018). Note that the specimen in D is oriented toward the anterior portion of the carapace. Scale bar width equals 2.0 mm.

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FIGURE 12. Comparison of length-width ratios relative to specimen size for carapaces of three previously recognized brachyuran species that are synonymized herein: Europrosopon aculeatum (= E. verrucosum and E. barbulescuae). Specimens grew proportionally wider (allometric growth). Data: Appendix 4.

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FIGURE 13. Specimen of the crab Laeviprosopon punctatum (von Meyer, 1857) (NHMW 2017/0089/0033) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria. A, dorsal view of carapace. B, right-lateral view. C, frontal view. Scale bar width equals 2.0 mm.

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FIGURE 14. Specimen of the crab Prosopon josephcollinsi sp. nov. (NHMW 1990/0041/0738) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria. A, dorsal view of carapace. B, left-lateral view. C, frontal view. D, right-lateral view, angled. Scale bar width equals 5.0 mm.

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FIGURE 15. Holo- and paratype of the crab Protuberosa protuberosa (Wehner, 1988) from the Late Jurassic (late Kimmeridgian) of Saal near Kelheim, southern Germany. A, B, dorsal views of carapace of holotype (SNSB-BSPG 2016 XXI 482) (external mold and cast, resp.). C, dorsal view of partial carapace of paratype (SNSB-BSPG 2016 XXI 484). D, right-lateral view of paratype. Scale bar width equals 5.0 mm.

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FIGURE 16. Specimens of the crab Tanidromites scheffnerae Schweigert and Koppka, 2011, from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria. A-C, G, dorsal views (NHMW 2014/0194/0988, 2014/0194/0314, 2014/0194/0312, and 1990/0041/1318, resp.). D-F, two left and one right views of augenrest (NHMW 1990/0041/1318, 2014/0194/0312, and 2014/0194/0314, resp.). H, I, L, two left- and one right-lateral views (NHMW 2014/0194/0314, 2014/0194/0312, and 2014/0194/0988, resp.). J, K, frontal views (NHMW 2014/0194/0312 and 2014/0194/0988, resp.). Scale bar width is 5.0 mm, except for D-F (1.0 mm).

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FIGURE 17. Specimens of the crab Tanidromites sculpta (Quenstedt, 1858) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria (all except I, K, L), and the Late Jurassic (middle-late Oxfordian) of Niegowonice, southern Poland (I, K, L) for comparison. A-D, I, dorsal views (NHMW 1990/0041/5065, 1990/0041/0689, 1990/0041/3985, 2014/0194/0313, and I-F/MP/248/1495/08, resp.). E, F, frontal views (NHMW 2014/0194/0313 and 1990/0041/3985, resp.). G, J, K, right- and 2x left-lateral views (NHMW 1990/0041/5065, 1990/0041/3985, and I-F/MP/248/1495/08, resp.). J and K are taken at slightly different angles. H, L, straight on views of left orbital structure. (NHMW 1990/0041/3985 and I-F/MP/248/1495/08, resp.). Scale bar width is 2.0 mm, except for H and L (1.0 mm).

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FIGURE 18. Holotype and sole specimen of the crab Tanidromites weinschenki sp. nov. (SMNS 77338) from the Late Jurassic (early Kimmeridgian) of Aalen-Wasseralfingen (Braunenberg quarry area), southwestern Germany. A, dorsal view of carapace. B, frontal view. C, left-lateral view. Scale bar width equals 2.0 mm.

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FIGURE 19. Holotype and sole specimen of the crab Tanidromites nightwishorum sp. nov. (NHMW 1990/0041/3327) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria. A, dorsal view of carapace. B, frontal view. C, orbital view (straight on). D, left-lateral view E, orbital view (laterally). Scale bar width is 5.0 mm, except for C and E (1.0 mm).

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FIGURE 20. A large and small specimen of the crab Konidromites gibbus (Reuss, 1858) from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Ernstbrunn, eastern Austria. A, C, E, dorsal, left-lateral, and frontal views, resp. (NHMW 2014/0194/0669). B, D, F, G, dorsal, left-lateral, frontal, and left-orbital views (NHMW 1990/0041/5104). Scale bar width equals 2.0 mm.

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