Home

Article Search

TABLE 1. Fauna of the Upper Pleistocene deposit of Is Mesas recognized in this study.

Taxon Habitat-Substrate-Biocoenosis References Abbreviations
Phylum Echinodermata     SupraL = Supralittoral
Class Echinoidea     L = Littoral
Order Camarodonta     IL = Infralittoral
Family Parechinidae     ML = Mesolittoral
  Paracentrotus lividus IL, H (PA), P 1, 2, 17, references cited herein CL = Circalittoral
        SL = Sublittoral
Phylum Mollusca     IN = Intertidal
Class Gastropoda     H = Hard substrates
Order ?     S = Soft sediments
Family Patellidae     P = Posidonia meadows
  Patella caerulea IL, H (PA) 31, 33, 34 PA = Photophilic algae
  Patella rustica ML, IL, H (PA) 2, 31, 33, 34 C = Coralligenous
Order Lepetellida     SABEL = Sabellaria alveolata reef
Family Fissurellidae     SA = Sciaphilic algae
  Diodora gibberula IL to CL H (PA), P, C 17, 18, 31, 33, 34 Rh = Rhodolith beds
  Diodora graeca      
Order Neogastropoda     Literature list
Family Conidae     1) Mortensen, 1943
  Conus ermineus L to SL, H, S 19, 28 2) Pérès and Picard, 1964
  Conus ventricosus IL to CL, H (beneath boulders, PA), S 5, 11, 31, 33, 34 3) Lipkin and Safriel, 1971
Family Columbellidae     4) Conti and Rossini, 1985
  Columbella rustica IL, H (beneath boulders, PA), P 2, 5, 6, 17, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34 5) Taylor, 1987
Family Muricidae     6) Russo et al., 1991
  Hexaplex trunculus IN, IL to CL, H (PA), S 5, 16, 17, 33, 34 7) Hall-Spencer, 1998
Family Pisaniidae     8) Peharda et al., 2002
  Gemophos viverratus IL, H, S 12, 28, 30 9) Rubio and Rolan, 2002
Family Nassariidae     10) Russo et al., 2002
  Tritia incrassata IL, H (PA, SABEL), S, P 6, 11, 27, 29, 40 11) Antoniadou et al., 2005
Order Trochida     12) Rolán, 2005
Family Turbinidae     13) Sivan et al., 2006
  Bolma rugosa IL to CL, H (PA, SA), P, C 11, 17, 18, 25, 31, 33, 34, 40 14) Spadini, 2006
Family Trochidae     15) Trigui El-Menif et al., 2007
  Jujubinus exasperatus IL to CL, H (PA), P, C 4, 6, 11, 17, 18, 22, 25, 27, 31, 33, 34, 38, 40 16) Vasconcelos et al., 2007
  Clanculus jussieui IL to CL, P, C 9, 14 17) Beqiraj et al., 2008
  Clanculus corallinus IL to CL, H (PA), P, C 4, 11, 17, 18, 31, 33, 34 18) Casellato and Stefanon, 2008
  Phorcus turbinatus ML, IL, H (PA) 2, 31, 33, 34 19) Rosenberg et al., 2009
Order Caenogastropoda ?     20) Sciberras et al., 2009
Family Cerithiidae     21) Rufino et al., 2010
  Cerithium lividulum IL, H (PA), S 31, 34 22) Albano and Sabelli, 2011
  Cerithium vulgatum IL to CL, H, S, P 2, 11, 17, 25, 31, 33, 34 23) Gutierrez-Mas, 2011
  Bittium latreillii IL to CL, H (PA, Rh), P, C 6, 10, 11, 20, 25, 38 24) Öztürk, 2011
Family Epitoniidae     25) Albano and Sabelli, 2012
  Epitonium clathrus IL to CL, H (PA), S 31, 34 26) Župan et al., 2012
Family Triphoridae     27) Belgacem et al., 2013
  Triphoridae ind.     28) Sessa et al., 2013
Order Littorinimorpha     29) Urra et al., 2013
Family Triviidae     30) Brunetti and Della Bella, 2014
  Trivia arctica IL to CL 31, 33 31) Öztürk et al., 2014
Family Littorinidae     32) Pitacco et al., 2014
  Melarhaphe neritoides SupraL to IL, H (PA) 2, 3, 5, 31, 33, 34 33) Alf and Haszprunar, 2015
Class Bivalvia     34) Poursanidis et al., 2016
Order Arcida     35) Chimienti et al., 2017
Family Arcidae     36) Kersting et al., 2017
  Arca noae IL to CL, H (PA, SABEL, SA), P 8, 17, 18, 26, 27, 31, 33, 34, 40 37) Morton and Puljas, 2017
Family Glycymerididae     38) Donnarumma et al., 2018
  Glycymeris nummaria IL to CL, S 2, 13, 23 39) Giacobbe and Renda, 2018
Family Noetiidae     40) Casoli et al., 2019
  Striarca lactea IL, H, P, C 15, 22, 25  
Order Cardiida      
Family Cardiidae      
  Acanthocardia tuberculata IL to CL, S (SFBC), P 2, 8, 11, 17, 31, 33, 34  
Order Carditida      
Family Carditidae      
  Cardita calyculata ML, IL, H (PA), S, P 2, 27, 29, 31, 33, 34  
Order Venerida      
Family Veneridae      
  Irus irus ML, IL to CL, H (PA, SABEL), C, S, P 2, 11, 27, 31, 33, 40  
  Venerupis geographica IL, P 29  
  Clausinella fasciata IL, S 7, 21, 33  
Order Lucinida      
Family Lucinidae      
  Lucinella divaricata IL to CL, S, P 11, 21, 35, 38  
  Ctena decussata IL, P, S 35, 38, 39  
Order Ostreida      
Family Ostreidae      
  Ostrea sp.      
Order Mytilida      
Family Mytilidae      
  Mytilaster minimus ML, IL, H, (PA), C 2, 18, 31, 33, 34, 37, 40  
Order Pectinida      
Family Anomiidae      
  Anomia ephippium IL, P 29  
Class Scaphopoda      
Order Dentaliida      
Family Dentaliidae      
  Antalis vulgaris IL to CL, S, P, C 2, 17, 24, 25, 31, 33, 34  
  Antalis inaequicosta IL to CL, H (C), S, P 17, 24, 31  
Phylum Cnidaria      
Class Anthozoa      
Order Scleractinia      
Family Scleractinia incertae sedis      
  Cladocora caespitosa L to shallow SL, H, S, P 17, 32, 36  

 

 

TABLE 2. Occurrence, relative abundance and taphonomy of Paracentrotus lividus remains from Late Pleistocene (Part 1) and recent environments (Part 2 and 3). Fragmentation refers to intraplate fracturing. B = spine fragments retaining the base, T = retaining the tip, S = missing both the base and tip.

Part 1

Locality Is Mesas (Pleistocene)
State of preservation N (%) Fragmentation  (%) Abrasion  (%) Encrustation  (%)
Test        
Complete test (no apical system, no spines)        
More than half test with spines attached        
More than half test without spines attached        
Single ambulacral plates 613 (21.81%) 475 (77.49) 508 (82.87) 6 (0.98)
Two ambulacral plates 91 (3.24) 75 (82.42) 75 (82.42) 1 (1.09)
Three to more ambulacral plates 97 (3.45) 86 (88.66) 85 (87.63) 1 (1.03)
Auricles with ambulacral plates 18 (0.64) 17 (94.44) 18 (100)  
Single interambulacral plates 755 (26.87) 572 (75.76) 570 (75.49) 5 (0.66)
Two interambulacral plates 132 (4.70) 96 (72.73) 99 (75) 6 (4.55)
Three to more interambulacral plates 39 (1.39) 25 (64.10) 26 (66.66) 1 (2.56)
Ambulacral and Interambulacral plates 113 (4.02) 104 (92.04) 103 (91.15) 4 (3.54)
Indeterminable plates 684 (24.34) 684 (100) 666 (97.37) 2 (0.29)
Total 2542 (90.46) 2134 (83.95) 2150 (84.58) 26 (1.02)
Plates of the apical system        
Madreporite 2 (0.07) 1 (50) 1 (50)  
Genital plates 15 (0.53) 1 (6.66) 9 (60)  
Ocular plates 4 (0.14) 1 (25) 1 (25)  
Total 21 (0.74) 3 (14.29) 10 (47.62)  
Aristotle's lantern elements        
Hemipyramids 123 (4.38) 109 (88.62) 118 (95.93)  
Rotulae 54 (1.92) 12 (22.22) 24 (44.44)  
Epiphyses 18 (0.64) 10 (55.55) 14 (77.77)  
Compasses 4 (0.14)   1 (25)  
Teeth 48 (1.71) 47 (97.92) 32 (66.66)  
Total 247 (8.80) 178 (72.06) 189 (76.52)  
Total 2810 (100) 2315 (82.38) 2349 (83.59) 26 (0.93)
Spines        
Complete 64 (4.47)   15 (23.44) 5 (7.81)
Fragments 1368 (B=461; T=208; S=699) 1368 975 (71.27) 124 (9.06)
Total 1432 1368 (95.53) 990 (69.13) 129 (9.01)
Sampling method Bulk sampling and sieving      

 

Part 2

Locality Sa Mesa Longa (Recent)
State of preservation N (%) Fragmentation (%) Abrasion (%) Encrustation (%)
Test        
Complete test (no apical system, no spines) 2 (0.11)   1 (50%) 2 (100)
More than half test with spines attached 1 (0.05) 1 (100)    
More than half test without spines attached 2 (0.11)      
Single ambulacral plates 272 (14.98) 137 (50.37) 203 (74.63) 14 (5.15)
Two ambulacral plates 57 (3.14) 24 (42.11) 40 (70.18) 8 (14.04)
Three to more ambulacral plates 141 (7.76) 103 (73.05) 104 (73.76) 42 (29.79)
Auricles with ambulacral plates 11 (0.60) 10 (90.91) 9 (81.82)  
Single interambulacral plates 487 (26.82) 306 (62.83) 346 (71.05) 36 (7.39)
Two interambulacral plates 167 (9.20) 81 (48.50) 112 (67.07) 41 (24.55)
Three to more interambulacral plates 98 (5.40) 47 (47.96) 68 (69.39) 36 (36.73)
Ambulacral and Interambulacral plates 163 (8.98) 113 (69.33) 78 (47.85) 63 (38.65)
Indeterminable 192 (10.57) 191 (99.48) 175 (91.15) 2 (1,04)
Total 1593 (87.72) 1013 (63.59) 1136 (71.31) 244 (15.32)
Plates of the apical system        
Madreporite 5 (0.27) 2 (40) 3 (60)  
Genital plates 7 (0.39) 2 (28.57) 2 (28.57)  
Ocular plates 4 (0.22)   1 (25)  
Total 16 (0.88) 4 (25) 6 (37.5)  
Aristotle's lantern elements        
Hemipyramids 108 (5.95) 78 (72.22) 103 (95.37) 5 (4.63)
Rotulae 61 (3.36) 12 (19.67) 32 (52.46)  
Epiphyses 10 (0.55) 6 (60) 7 (70)  
Compasses 3 (0.16)   1 (33.33)  
Teeth 25 (1.37) 21 (84) 14 (56) 4 (16)
Total 207 (11.39) 117 (56.52) 157 (75.85) 9 (4.35)
Total 1816 1134 (62.44) 1299 (71.53) 253 (13.93)
Spines        
Complete 63 (4.17)   11 (17.46) 2 (3.17)
Fragments 1447 (B=769; T=119; S=559) 1447 1170 (80.86) 82 (5.66)
Total 1510 1447 (95.83) 1181 (78.21) 84 (5.56)
Sampling method Surface collecting      

 

Part 3

Locality Sa Mesa Longa (Recent)
State of preservation N (%) Fragmentation (%) Abrasion  (%) Encrustation  (%)
Test        
Complete test (no apical system, no spines)        
More than half test with spines attached        
More than half test without spines attached        
Single ambulacral plates 603 (23.05) 457 (75.79) 585 (97.01) 6 (0.99)
Two ambulacral plates 38 (1.45) 30 (78.95) 35 (92.11)  
Three to more ambulacral plates 17 (0.65) 16 (94.12) 16 (94.12) 1 (5.88)
Auricles with ambulacral plates 3 (0.11) 3 (100) 3 (100)  
Single interambulacral plates 526 (20.11) 386 (73.38) 506 (96.18) 13 (2.47)
Two interambulacral plates 30 (1.15) 23 (76.67) 29 (96.67) 4 (13.33)
Three to more interambulacral plates 15 (0.57) 10 (66.67) 13 (86.67)  
Ambulacral and Interambulacral plates 11 (0.42) 9 (81.82) 11 (100)  
Indeterminable plates 1250 (47.79) 1250 (100) 1250 (100)  
Total 2493 (95.30) 2184 (87.61) 2448 (98.19) 24 (0.96)
Plates of the apical system        
Madreporite 2 (0.07) 1 (50) 2 (100)  
Genital plates 14 (0.54) 6 (42.86) 12 (85.71)  
Ocular plates 4 (0.15)   4 (100)  
Total 20 (0.76) 7 (35) 18 (90)  
Aristotle's lantern elements        
Hemipyramids 53 (2.03) 53 (100) 53 (100)  
Rotulae 17 (0.65) 3 (17.65) 12 (70.59)  
Epiphyses 10 (0.38) 7 (70) 9 (90)  
Compasses 3 (0.11) 3 (100) 1 (33.33)  
Teeth 20 (0.77) 20 (100) 20 (100)  
Total 103 (3.94) 86 (83.49) 95 (92.23)  
Total 2616 2277 (87.04) 2561 (97.90) 24 (0.91)
Spines        
Complete 48 (3.02)   26 (54.17)  
Fragments 1542 (B=508; T=76; S=958) 1542 1456 (94.42) 16 (1.03)
Total 1590 1542 (96.98) 1482 (93.21) 16 (1.01)
Sampling method Bulk sampling and sieving      

 

TABLE 3. Relative abundance of test elements of Paracentrotus lividus with respect to element abundance in a recent specimen 45.02 mm in diameter. E = number of elements. EA = Expected element abundance (E/Total). OA = Observed element abundance (E/Total).

Test elements     Is Mesas Sa Mesa Longa Sa Mesa Longa
  E EA E OA OA/EA % E OA OA/EA % E OA OA/EA%
Ambulacral plates 251 0.515 613 0.374 72.621 272 0.277 53.786 603 0.482 93.592
Interambulacral plates 191 0.392 755 0.461 117.602 487 0.496 126.530 526 0.420 107.142
Madreporite 1 0.002 2 0.001 50 5 0.005 250 2 0.001 50
Genital plates 4 0.008 15 0.009 112.5 7 0.007 87.5 14 0.011 137.5
Ocular plates 5 0.010 4 0.002 20 4 0.004 40 4 0.003 30
Hemipyramids 10 0.020 123 0.075 375 108 0.109 545 53 0.042 210
Rotulae 5 0.010 54 0.033 330 61 0.062 620 17 0.013 130
Epiphyses 10 0.020 18 0.011 55 10 0.010 50 10 0.008 40
Compasses 5 0.010 4 0.002 20 3 0.003 30 3 0.002 20
Teeth 5 0.010 48 0.029 290 25 0.025 250 20 0.016 160
                       
Total 487   1636     982     1252    
Sampling method     Bulk sampling and sieving Surface collecting Bulk sampling and sieving

logo smallPalaeontologia Electronica
Webmaster
1998–2020
23 years of electronic palaeontology

PE is archived by CLOCKSS and LOCKSS programs.