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TABLE 1. Linear regression analyses for Pinnipedimorpha and extant families’ diversity through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Diversity of each group is considered from the time bin of first occurrence (Chattian for Pinnipedimorpha, Burdigalian for extant families). Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each group are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S1.

  Pinnipedimorpha Phocidae Otariidae Odobenidae
R ² 0.909 0.775 0.993 0.906
AIC 29.199 22.052 -14.018 -1.180
p-value 0.008 0.087 0.001 0.016
Best model A+B+C+D A+B+D A+B+C+D A+B+D

 

 

TABLE 2. Linear regression analyses for Pinnipedimorpha habitat preference through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Only prevalent categories (with at least one time bin with a count > 5) were considered. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each category are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S2.

  Marine coastal Marine benthic Marine pelagic
R² 0.914 0.847 0.885
AIC 28.844 0.387 -7.244
p-value 0.004 0.004 0.036
Best model A+C+D A+C A+B+C+D

 

 

TABLE 3. Linear regression analyses for Pinnipedimorpha prey type preference through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Only prevalent categories (with at least one time bin with a count > 5) were considered. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each category are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S3.

  Fish Squid/soft bodied invertebrates Benthic invertebrates
R² 0.896 0.982 0.969
AIC 27.725 -9.734 -4.775
p-value 0.011 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Best model A+B+C+D A+D A+B+D

 

 

TABLE 4. Linear regression analyses for Cetacea and Odontoceti and Mysticeti diversity through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each category are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S4.

  Cetacea Odontoceti Mysticeti
R² 0.674 0.667 0.706
AIC 90.967 84.175 58.829
p-value 0.001 0.001 0.001
Best model A+C A+C A+C

 

 

TABLE 5. Linear regression analyses for Cetacea habitat preference through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each category are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S5.

  Riverine Estuarine Marine coastal Marine benthic Marine pelagic
R² 0.601 0.240 0.676 0.906 0.710
AIC 7.083 40.692 79.988 -14.579 89.199
p-value 0.004 0.193 0.001 < 0.0001 0.001
Best model A+D A+D A+C A+B+C A+C

 

 

TABLE 6. Linear regression analyses for Cetacea prey type preference through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each category are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S6.

  Fish Squid/soft-bodied inv. Zooplankton Benthic inv. Tetrapods
R² 0.663 0.743 0.698 0.837 0.036
AIC 89.536 73.845 59.565 6.252 27.313
p-value 0.001 0.001 0.001 < 0.0001 0.500
Best model A+C A+B+C A+C B+C C

 

 

TABLE 7. Linear regression analyses for Cetacea prey capture strategies through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each category are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S7.

  Biting/crushing Suction Filter
R² 0.490 0.762 0.703
AIC 72.148 74.033 59.146
p-value 0.018 0.001 0.001
Best model A+C A+B+C A+C

 

 

TABLE 8. Linear regression analyses for Sirenia and Desmostylia diversity through time against climate and productivity variables: δ18O (variable A), δ13C (variable B), diatom species diversity (variable C), sea level changes (variable D). Best model, including one, two, three, or all four variables, is selected based on its AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion) score. Diversity of Desmostylia is considered from the time bin of first occurrence to the last (from Rupelian to Tortonian). To account for their low diversity, these groups were also considered together (“Sirenia and Desmostylia combined”). Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Only data (R2, p-value, AIC) for the best model for each group are reported, for complete results see Appendix 2, Table S8.

  Sirenia Desmostylia Sirenia and
Desmostylia
combined
R² 0.243 0.603 0.460
AIC 27.978 5.200 37.158
p-value 0.189 0.158 0.025
Best model A+C B+D A+D

 

 

TABLE 9. Correlation test (Pearson’s coefficient) for Sirenia, Desmostylia, and “Sirenia and Desmostylia combined” diversity through time with climate and productivity variables: δ18O, δ13C, diatom species diversity, sea level changes. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. Cells for auto-correlated variables are grayed out. P-values for the correlations are reported in Appendix 2, Table S9.

  Sirenia Desmostylia Sirenia and
Desmostylia
combined
Sirenia   0.040  
Desmostylia 0.040    
Sirenia & Desmostylia      
δ18O 0.252 0.207 0.168
δ13C 0.353 0.068 0.128
Diatom diversity 0.870 0.660 0.742
Sea level 0.823 0.379 0.554

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