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FIGURE 1. Location map. A, A') Position of Novohrad-Nógrád Basin within the Pannonian Basin System. Modified from Rybár et al., 2016. B) Location map of studied sections. C) Lithostratigraphic scheme. Explanatory notes: FPB-Fiľakovo-Pétervására Basin; DB- Danube Basin; NNB-Novohrad-Nógrád Basin. Modified from Gradstein et al., 2012.

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FIGURE 2. Lithology of the studied sections with sedimentological logs and paleoflow orientation. For codes of lithofacies see Appendix 1.

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FIGURE 3. Photoplate of the Čebovce and Trenč sections: A-C. Čebovce section, lat. 48°11'17.88"N, lon. 19°13'38.94"E, mud with faint lamination with slump bodies overlain by fine to coarse grained sand with pebbles D-G. Trenč section, lat. 48°13'20.47"N, lon. 19°14'44.42"E. D) Southern foot of the Strážna hora hill with oyster reefs outcropping at the forest boundary. E) Ostrea bed. F) Clast supported massive gravels. G) Fine-grained tuffite. For codes of lithofacies marked in italic see Appendix 1.

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FIGURE 4. Photoplate of the Kosihovce and Príbelce sections: A-C. Kosihovce section, lat. 48°11'15.16"N, lon. 19°31'35.74"E. A) Fine-grained tuffites with faint lamination and symmetrical ripples. B) Detail of the sampling points. C) Fine-grained tuffite with faint lamination. For codes of lithofacies marked in italic see Appendix 1. D-J. Príbelce section, lat. 48°11'49.89"N, lon. 19°14'44.42"E. D) Type locality of the Príbelce Member, E) Fine to very coarse sand with grouped unidirectional cross-beds. F) Fine to very coarse sand with grouped bidirectional cross-beds, G) Detail of the symmetrical ripple composed of sand and tuffite. H) Grouped unidirectional trough cross-bedded sand. I) Pyroclastic breccia. J) Fossiliferous horizontally bedded clast supported gravels with sandy matrix. For codes of lithofacies marked in italic see Appendix 1.

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FIGURE 5. Photoplate of the Stredné Plachtince and Horné Strháre sections: A-F. Stredné Plachtince section, lat. 48°13'20.69"N, lon. 19°18'18.54"E. A) Main quarry wall exposing Príbelce sand topped by pyroclastic breccias. B-C) Bioturbated grouped bidirectional planar cross-bedded sand. D) Sand with symmetrical ripples marked by arrow. E) Contact between bidirectional and unidirectional cross-beds marked by tuffite layer. F) Contact between unidirectional cross-beds and through cross-bedded gravels topped by pyroclastic breccias. G-K. Horné Strháre section, lat. 48°15'57.91"N, lon. 19°21'9.08"E. G) Overall view of the quarry. H) unidirectional planar sandy cross-beds. I) Trough cross-bedded sand with mud drapes. J) Contact between trough cross-bedded sand with mud drapes and clast supported through cross-bedded gravels. K) Contact between tuffites and pyroclastic breccias. L) Boulder-sized clast of the paraconglomerate facies. For codes of lithofacies marked in italic see Appendix 1.

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FIGURE 6. Photoplate of the Plášťovce and Hámor sections: A-C. Plášťovce section. A) Lat. 48°9'23.53"N, lon. 18°57'26.67"E, fine grained tuffites. B) Lat. 48° 9'14.61", lon. 18°56'47.80", clast supported through-cross bedded gravels overlying fine grained tuffites. C) Lat. 48°9'28.24"N, lon. 18°57'28.60"E, main quarry wall exposing fine to coarse grained sand, clast supported massive gravels. D-G. Hámor section, lat. 48°12'51.66"N, lon. 19°31'35.74"E, D) Overall view of the outcropping sand. E-G) Alteration of through cross-bedded low-angle laminated sands and clast supported gravels with sandy matrix.

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FIGURE 7. Photoplate of the nannofossils, diatoms and pollen. A-K. Kosihovce site (NN5a Zone); scale bar equals 5 µm. A-C) Helicosphaera waltrans Theodoridis, 1984. D) Cyclicargolithus floridanus (Roth and Hay, in Hay et al., 1967) Bukry, 1971. E) Cyclicargolithus abisectus (Muller, 1970) Wise, 1973, reworked Oligocene. F) Helicosphaera recta (Haq, 1966) Jafar and Martini, 1975, reworked Oligocene. G) Micula staurophora (Gardet, 1955) Stradner, 1963, reworked Upper Cretaceous. H) Pontosphaera latoculata (Bukry and Percival, 1971) Perch-Nielsen 1984, reworked Oligocene. I) Reticulofenestra daviesii (Haq, 1968) Haq, 1971, reworked Oligocene. J-K) Reticulofenestra haqii Backman, 1978; L-J’. Čebovce site (NN4 Zone); scale bar equals 5 µm. L-P) Morphological variability of Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich, 1877) Schiller, 1930. Q) Discoaster exilis Martini and Bramlette, 1963. R) Coronosphaera mediterranea (Lohmann, 1902) Gaarder in Gaarder and Heimdal, 1977. S) Reticulofenestra minuta Roth, 1970. T) Reticulofenestra haqii Backman, 1978. U-W) Morphological variability of Cyclicargolithus floridanus (Roth and Hay, in Hay et al., 1967) Bukry, 1971. X) Discoaster pentaradiatus Tan, 1927. Y-Z) Helicosphaera waltrans Theodoridis, 1984. A’) Helicosphaera ampliaperta Bramlette and Wilcoxon, 1967. B’) Pontosphaera multipora (Kamptner, 1948 ex Deflandre in Deflandre and Fert, 1954) Roth, 1970. C’) Pontosphaera enormis (Locker, 1967) Perch-Nielsen, 1984; reworked Oligocene. D’) Helicosphaera euphratis Haq, 1966. E’) Helicosphaera vedderi Bukry, 1981. F’-G’) Helicosphaera cf. vedderi Bukry, 1981. H’) Helicosphaera carteri (Wallich 1877) Kamptner, 1954. I’-J’) Assemblages with coccoliths, centric diatoms and sponge spicules. K’) Triceratium aff. favus Ehrenberg, Čebovce site. L’) T. favus Ehrenberg, Čebovce site. M’) Actinoptychus splendes (Shadbolt) Ralfs, Čebovce site. N’) Tasmanites sp., Kosihovce site. O’) Botryococcus braunii Kützing, Čebovce site. P’) Polypodiaceae indet., Kosihovce site. Q’) Ulmaceae indet., Kosihovce site. R’) Cupressaceae inet., Kosihovce site. S’) Carya sp., Kosihovce site. T’) Juglandaceae indet., Kosihovce site U’) Juglandaceae indet., Kosihovce site. V’) Castanea sp., Kosihovce site. W’) Fagaceae indet., Kosihovce site. X’) Abies sp., Čebovce site. Y’) Abies sp., Kosihovce site. Z’) Pinus sp., Čebovce site. A’’) Cathaya sp., Kosihovce site. B’’) Cathaya sp., Kosihovce site.

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FIGURE 8. Photoplate of the foraminifers. A) Trilobatus bisphericus (Todd, 1954), Trenč 5. B) Trilobatus bisphericus (Todd, 1954), Trenč 6. C) Praeorbulina curva (Blow, 1956), Trenč 5. D) Praeorbulina circularis (Blow, 1956), Trenč 6. E) Praeorbulina circularis (Blow, 1956), Hámor 8. F) Orbulina suturalis Brönnimann, 1951, Hámor 1. G) Dentoglobigerina altispira (Cushman and Jarvis, 1936), Trenč 5. H) Dentoglobigerina altispira (Cushman and Jarvis, 1936), cast, Trenč 5. I) Trilobatus trilobus (Reuss, 1850), Kosihovce 2. J) Trilobatus trilobus (Reuss, 1850), Hámor 8. K) Beella sp. B. cf. praedigitata (Parker, 1967), Čebovce 1. L) Globigerinella obesa (Bolli, 1957), Čebovce 3. M) Turborotalita quinqueloba (Natland, 1938), Čebovce 5. N) Globorotalia archeomenardii Bolli, 1957, Čebovce-b. O) Cibicides crassiseptatus (Łuczkowska, 1960). P) Nodosaria sp., cast, Trenč 1. Q) Lenticulina sp. cast, Trenč 01. R) Cycloforina badenensis (d'Orbigny, 1846), Trenč 1. S) Uvigerina macrocarinata Papp and Turnovsky, 1953, cast, Trenč 1. T) Uvigerina graciliformis Papp and Turnovsky, 1953, Čebovce 5. U) Uvigerina acuminata Hosius, 1895, Čebovce 10. V) Bolivina pokornyi Cicha and Zapletalová 1961, Čebovce 5. W) Bolivina hebes Macfadyen, 1930, Čebovce 10. X) Bolivina dilatata Reuss, 1850, Hámor 13. Y) Plectofrondicularia digitalis (Neugeboren, 1850), Čebovce 10. Z) Plectofrondicularia digitalis (Neugeboren, 1850), Čebovce 10. A’) Protoglobobulimina pupoides (d'Orbigny, 1846), Čebovce 5. B’) Spirosigmoilina tenuis (Cžjžek, 1848), Čebovce 1. C’) Elphidium margaritaceum Cushman, 1930, Hámor 8. D’) Heterolepa dutemplei (d'Orbigny, 1846), Hámor 13. E’) Ammonia parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny, 1839). F’) Borelis melo (Fichtel and Moll, 1798), Hámor 6. G’) Sahulia conica (d'Orbigny, 1839), Hámor 11.

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FIGURE 9. Foraminifera and nannofossils - statistical results. A. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the nannofossil assemblages. B. Relative abundances of Reticulofenestra minuta and Coccolithus pelagicus in the main stratigraphic levels. C. Cluster diagram (Ward algorithm analysis) of the benthic foraminifera assemblages, D. Species diversity of benthic foraminifera showing relation to typical environment adopted from Murray (2006), E. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) diagram of benthic foraminifera, F. Isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C), G. Estimated paleodepths based on benthic foraminifera.

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FIGURE 10. Polpal outcome chart - climate and ecology.

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FIGURE 11. Blockdiagram showing paleogeography of the northern Paratethys Sea affected by activity of the Krupina volcanic field during early Badenian.

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