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TABLE 1. Stratigraphic units, levels, and chronology from Cueva de los Nesofontes, Mayabeque, Cuba. Results and source of radiocarbon dated (AMS 14C) material with lab numbers is provided. The roman numbers indicate the stratigraphic interval, and the letter the stratigraphic unit, as discussed in the text.

Interval Depth
(cm)
Strat. Unit Granulometry 14C Cal yrs BP Cal yrs
(2σ)
Source Number
I 0-9 A 40.9 % med sand 1.223 ± 0.004 pMC AD 1955-1993 Artibeus jamaicensis humerus ICA 15B/0116
II 10-19 E >50 % med san 1960 ± 30 BP BC 40-AD 90 Phyllops vetus skull ICA 18B/0845
III 20-29 H 52.4 % fine sand 1290 ± 30 BP AD 660-770 A. anthonyi dentary ICA 14B/1102
IV 30-45 I 49.8 % fine sand 1418 ± 20 BP AD 605-655 Nesophontes major dentary Beta 392022
I 0-2 n/a Fine sand/detritus 115.9 ± 0.6 pMC AD 1957-1993 A. jamaicensis scapula Beta 210380
I Surface n/a cave floor 1.014 ± 0.004 pMC AD 1955-1956 Canis lupus familiaris vertebra ICA15B/0115

 

TABLE 2.  Results of stable isotope analysis with source material from deposits at Cueva de los Nesofontes. “~”: Approximate source depth for analyzed specimens. “n/a”: Not available data. “collagen”: Collagen-derived measurement (those not indicated are from dental apatite readings).

Interval Depth
(cm)
Strat. Unit δ18O_apt δ13C Source Number
I 0 A -1.1 -9.9 Artibeus jamaicensis skull USF 15314
I 0 A n/a ­20.1 (collagen) A. jamaicensis humerus ICA 15B/0116
I-II ~14 C -1 -8.1 A. jamaicensis humeri USF 15316
II ~18 E -0.9 -10 A. jamaicensis skull USF 15313
III-IV 29-31 H -0.7 ­11.0 A. anthonyi dentary USF 15315
III-IV 29-32 H n/a ­21.1 (collagen) A. anthonyi dentary ICA 14B/1102
IV >32 I -1 ­20.7 (collagen) Nesophontes major dentary Beta 392022
I 0-2 n/a n/a ­20.7 (collagen) A. jamaicensis scapula Beta 210380
I Surface n/a n/a ­10.9 (collagen) Canis lupus familiaris vertebra ICA15B/0115

 

TABLE 3. Cueva de los Nesofontes fauna list, providing several individual specimens (NISP), the minimum number of individuals (MNI), and the number of total taxa (NTAXA) counts.

Species NISP MNI NTAXA
Amphibians      
Eleuterodactylus sp. 1 14 10 1
Eleuterodactylus sp. 2 2 2 1
Eleuterodactylus sp. 3 3 1 1
Peltophryne sp. 1 1 1
Total 20 14 4
Reptiles      
Anolis cf. equestris 2 1 1
Anolis sagrei 4 1 1
Anolis sp. (Large) 2 1 1
Anolis cf. chamaleonides 14 1 1
Total 22 4 4
Aves      
Cathartes aura 3 2 1
Falco sparverius 1 1 1
Sphyrapicus varius 3 1 1
Melanerpes superciliaris 4 2 1
Colaptes sp. cf. fernandinae/auratus 2 2 1
Saurothera merlini 1 1 1
Crotophaga ani 2 2 1
Psittacara eups 1 1 1
Psittasidae gen. et sp. indent. 1 1 1
Tyto furcata 2 2 1
Glaucidium siju 1 1 1
Margarobyas lawrencii 11 5 1
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. (medium size) 1 1 1
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. (large size) 1 1 1
Zenaida asiatica or macrura 3 2 2?
Zenaida aurita 4 1 1
Geotrygon cf. chrysia 1 1 1
Nesotrochis picapicensis 1 1 1
Corvus sp. indet. 1 1 1
Tyrannus sp. cf. dominicensis 1 1 1
Turdus plumbeus 3 1 1
Dumetella carolinesis 3 2 1
Mimus polygottos 11 3 1
Mimidae gen. et. sp. indet. 2 1 1
Progne cf. cryptoleuca 1 1 1
Tachycineta bicolor 2 2 1
Dives atroviolasceous 10 9 1
Quiscalus niger 10 5 1
Icterus sp. indet. 3 1 1
Agelaius sp. indet. 1 1 1
Icteridae gen. et sp. indet. (small size) 2 1 1
Sturnella magna 1 1 1
Passer domesticus 10 5 1
Falco sparverius 1 1 1
Aves gen. et sp. indet. 3 3 0
Total 103 64 33
Rodents      
Rattus rattus 3 2 1
Rattus norvegicus 18 5 1
Mus musculus 6 3 1
Boromys torreii 131 15 1
Boromys offella 13 5 1
Geocapromys columbianus 10 5 1
Capromys pilorides 21 5 1
Mesocapromys nanus 3 2 1
Mesocapromys kraglievichi 4 4 1
Mesocapromys sp. indet. 19 10 0
Mesocapromys gen. indet. 24 2 0
Total 252 58 9
Eulipotyphla      
Solenodon cubanus 3 2 1
Nesophontes micrus 628 62 1
Nesophontes major 403 64 1
Nesophontes cf. longirostris 3 2 1
Total 1037 130 4
Chiroptera      
Mormoops blainvilleii 10 5 1
Pteronotus parnellii 4 2 1
Brachyphylla nana 61 13 1
Monophyllus redmani (clinedaphus) 2 1 1
Erophylla sezekorni 11 4 1
Phyllonycteris poeyi 88 55 1
Macrotus waterhouseii 33 12 1
Artibeus anthonyi 8 3 1
Artibeus jamaicensis (larger size) 21 10 1
Artibeus jamaicensis (parvipes) 475 165 1
Phyllops falcatus 49 18 1
Phyllops vetus 21 8 1
Natalus primus 1 1 1
Antrozous koopmani 7 4 1
Eptesicus fuscus (dutertreus) 45 15 1
Tadarida brasiliensis 30 15 1
Molossus molossus 4 4 1
Chiroptera gen. et. sp. indet. 15 2 1
Total 871 335 17

 

TABLE 4. Stratigraphic distribution of taxa throughout each interval and their count. Presence is indicated with an ‘x’ and empty cell reports an absence. A total by interval is provided.

Species Stratigraphy        
Level I (0-10 cm) II (11-20 cm) III (21-30 cm) IV (31-50 cm)
Beds (Stratigraphic units) A-C B-F F-H H-I
Amphibians        
Eleuterodactylus sp. 1 x x x x
Eleuterodactylus sp. 2   x x  
Eleuterodactylus sp. 3 x x x  
Peltophryne sp.       x
Total Taxa per bed 2 3 3 2
Reptiles        
Anolis cf. equestris     x x
Anolis sagrei x x x  
Anolis sp. (Large)     x x
Anolis cf. chamaleonides x      
Total Taxa per bed 2 1 3 2
Aves        
Cathartes aura x   x  
Falco sparverius x      
Sphyrapicus varius   x x  
Melanerpes superciliaris x     x
Colaptes sp. cf. fernandinae/auratus       x
Saurothera merlini     x  
Crotophaga ani x   x  
Psittacara eups     x  
Psittasidae gen. et sp. indent. x      
Tyto furcata x   x  
Glaucidium siju     x  
Margarobyas lawrencii x x x x
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. (medium size)   x   x
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. (large size)       x
Zenaida asiatica or macrura   x x  
Zenaida aurita   x x  
Geotrygon cf. chrysia     x  
Nesotrochis picapicensis       x
Corvus sp. indet.     x  
Tyrannus sp. cf. dominicensis x      
Turdus plumbeus     x x
Dumetella carolinesis   x x  
Mimus polygottos   x x x
Mimidae gen. et. sp. indet.   x    
Progne cf. cryptoleuca     x  
Tachycineta bicolor     x  
Dives atroviolasceous x x x x
Quiscalus niger x      
Icterus sp. indet.     x x
Agelaius sp. indet.     x  
Icteridae gen. et sp. indet. (small size) x x x  
Sturnella magna x      
Passer domesticus x x    
Aves gen. et sp. indet. x   x x
Total Taxa per bed 14 11 22 11
Rodents        
Rattus rattus x x x x
Rattus norvegicus x x x x
Mus musculus x x x  
Boromys torreii x x x x
Boromys offella     x x
Geocapromys columbianus     x x
Capromys pilorides x x x x
Mesocapromys nanus     x x
Mesocapromys kraglievichi   x x x
Mesocapromys sp. indet.   x x x
Total taxa per bed 5 7 10 9
Eulipotyphla        
Solenodon cubanus x x    
Nesophontes micrus x x x x
Nesophontes major x x x x
Nesophontes cf. longirostris   x x  
Total Taxa per bed 3 4 3 2
Chiroptera        
Mormoops blainvilleii x   x  
Pteronotus parnellii x x    
Brachyphylla nana x x x x
Monophyllus redmani (clinedaphus) x   x  
Erophylla sezekorni x x x  
Phyllonycteris poeyi x x x x
Macrotus waterhouseii x x x  
Artibeus anthonyi     x x
Artibeus jamaicensis (larger size)     x x
Artibeus jamaicensis (parvipes) x x x x
Phyllops falcatus x   x  
Phyllops vetus   x x x
Natalus primus   x    
Antrozous koopmani   x x x
Eptesicus fuscus (dutertreus) x x x  
Tadarida brasiliensis x      
Molossus molossus x      
Chiroptera gen. et. sp. indet. x x x x
Total Taxa per bed 13 11 14 8
Total        
Mammals 21 22 27 19
Vertebrates 39 38 55 34
Vertebrates plus Gastropods and Crustaceans 51 54 63 41

 

TABLE 5. Nesophontes craniomandibular measurements, including the specimens tentatively identified here as N. cf. longirostris. All specimens are from Cueva de los Nesofontes, except two N. longirostris (one is the AMNH holotype, and the other a specimen from Cueva del Gato Jíbaro referenced in the text). Maximum Dental Length is equivalent to the upper and lower toothrow length, i.e., the length measured from most distal incisor to M3 (m3).

Species Measurement N Mean ± SD Range
Nesophontes micrus Max. Dental length 56 12.89 ± 0.3 12.2-13.56
  C-M3 length 67 10.55 ± 0.3 10.01-11.33
  Max. Palatal length 56 13.09 ± 0.4 12.2-13.99
  Max. Canine breath 68 3.61 ± 0.2 3.23-4.66
  Max. Canine-Pm3 length 70 2.35 ± 0.2 1.7-2.91
  Max. dentary length 243 18.03 ± 0.6 16.0-19.3
  Max. dentary dental length 257 11.48 ± 0.3 10.18-12.56
  Max. c-pm3 length 6 3.07 ± 1.7 2.66-3.49
N. major Max. Dental length 43 14.53 ± 0.6 12.63-15.46
  C-M3 length 56 11.75 ± 0.5 10.02-12.65
  Max. Palatal length 42 14.7 ± 0.5 13.56-15.53
  Max. Canine breath 62 4.86 ± 0.04 4.23-5.44
  Max. Canine-Pm3 length 65 2.30 ± 0.04 1.59-2.98
  Max. dentary length 147 20.77 ± 0.7 18.09-22.6
  Max. dentary dental length 160 13.0 ± 0.5 11.44-14.4
  Max. c-pm3 length 9 2.92 ± 2.1 2.31-3.45
N. longirostris Max. Dental length 4 14.87 ± 1.2 13.58-15.83
  C-M3 length 4 12.35 ± 0.09 11.80-12.4
  Max. Palatal length 4 15.43 ± 0.6 14.0-15.9
  Max. Canine breath 4 4.85 ± 0.4 4.4-5.26
  Max. Canine-Pm3 length 4 3.33 ± 0.1 3.20-3.45
  Max. dentary length 2 22.34 ± 0.3 22.08-22.60
  Max. dentary dental length 2 13.72 ± 0.2 13.54-13.90
  Max. c-pm3 length 2 4.0 ± 0.4 3.58-4.42

 

TABLE 6. Diversity indices, evenness, dominance, and chronology for each stratigraphic interval. Overall values are not the averages of each column, but the overall index calculated for the whole fauna. The roman numerals indicate the stratigraphic intervals as discussed in the text. The overall average is given in bold. BC/AD refers to calendar year calibrations.

Interval NTAXA NISP Shannon-
Weiner
Simpson's Fisher-a Eveness Dominance Chronology
I 39 469 1.18 0.653 1.12 0.814 0.525 AD 1953-1993
II 38 519 1.17 0.649 1.14 0.805 0.572 AD 660-770
III 55 929 1.18 0.653 0.99 0.812 0.481 AD 605-655
IV 34 409 1.21 0.664 1.18 0.839 0.545 BC 40-AD 90
Overall 73 2326 2.82 0.698 1.1075 0.233 0.53075  

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