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TABLE 1. List of the sampled sauropod specimens at the Howe-Stephens and Howe Scott quarries, with taxon assignment (based on field observations and later revised after Tschopp et al., 2015), measurements, bone tissue types, HOS and BOS, RS, number of cycles, presence of an EFS, and the bone surface conditions (OS = original surface, NOS = not original surface). Note that the bone tissue type usually consists of two letters; the first one representing the main bone tissue type that is present in the cortex, and the second one only within the innermost or outermost cortex (Table 3). Bone length is here defined as the largest proximal-distal distance within each bone. Both bone width and bone thickness have been taken at the sampling location at the mid-diaphysis. Due to poor preservation, the tibia of SMA 0007 “XL” could not be identified as a left or right tibia. Note that bone width and bone thickness for SMA 0015 “David” tibia and SMA G50/91-1 could not be measured since the bones remained in a plaster jacket and were only partially uncovered for sampling. Femur (l) SMA 0011 “Max”, drilled posterior, was sampled by PMS in 2001, when the bone was in preparation; femur (l) SMA 0011 “Max”, drilled anteriorly was sampled by KW in 2014, when the bone was no longer in the plaster jacket. The inaccuracies caused by partial coverage by plaster jackets is illustrated by the ~ symbol. Bone width and bone thickness were not measured for the SMA 0087 “Chris” femur (r), as well as the bone thickness for SMA M16/12-3, since the bones were still covered in a plaster jacket during sampling.

Specimen designation Taxon State of preservation Sampled bone Bone length (mm) Bone width (mm) Bone thickness (mm) Bone tissue type HOS BOS RS Cycles EFS and bone surface
Howe-Stephens Quarry
SMA 0002 “E.T.” Camarasaurus lewisi Articulated skeleton Humerus (r) 705 120 82 G 13 Adult III RS 7 0 Yes, NOS
      Femur (l) 935 175 85 F/E 11 Adult II RS 2 3 Yes, OS
      Tibia (l) 615 110 60 F/EFS 12 Adult II to adult III RS 3 9 Yes, OS
SMA 0007 “XL” Galeamopus sp.  Disarticulated skeleton Humerus (r) 925 160 95 E/F 10 Adult I to adult II RS 3 8 No, OS
      Ulna (l) 745 100 80 F/EFS 12 Adult II to adult III RS 5 4 Yes, NOS
      Tibia (?) 980 120 95 F/E 11 Adult II RS 4 3 Yes, NOS
SMA 0015 “David” Diplodocinae indet. Articulated specimen Femur (l) 1340 210 95 E/F 10 Adult I to Adult II RS 2 4 No, NOS
      Tibia (l) 1010 - - F/E 11 Adult II RS 4 1 Just started, NOS
      Fibula (l) 1040 80 65 F/E 11 Adult II RS 4 7 Yes, NOS
SMA G46/87-1 Diplodocinae indet. Isolated bone Humerus (l) 715 140 75 D/E 8 Sexual Maturity RS 1 8 No, NOS
SMA G50/91-1 Diplodocinae indet. Isolated bone Humerus (r) 735 _ _ D/E 8 Adult I RS 2 9 No, NOS
SMA G47/87-1 Diplodocinae indet. Isolated bone Femur (l) 1200 175 75 E/D 9 Sexual Maturity RS 1 0 No, NOS
Howe Scott Quarry
SMA 0014 “Jacques” Apatosaurus louisae Articulated specimen Femur (r) ant. section 1640 295 110 E/D 9 Adult I RS 3 18 No, NOS
      Femur (r) post. section 1640 295 110 E/D 9 Adult I RS 3 18 No, NOS
  Tibia (r) 640 175 115 E/F 10 Adult I to Adult II RS 4 9 No, OS
SMA 0011 “Max” Galeamopus sp. Associated specimen Humerus (r) 900 190 80 D/E 8 Sexual Maturity RS 1 10 No, OS
      Humerus (l) 850 180 90 D/E 8 Sexual Maturity RS 1 8 No, NOS
      Ulna (l) 635 95 65 E/F 10 Adult I to Adult II RS 3 10 No, OS
      Radius (l) 620 100 65 E/F 10 Adult I to Adult II RS 3 11 No, OS
      Femur (l) ant. section 1490 240 145 D/E 8 Sexual Maturity RS 1 13 No, OS
      Femur (l) post. section 1490 240 145 D/E 8 Sexual Maturity RS 1 11 No, NOS
      Tibia (l) 870 80 140 E/D 9 Adult I RS 3 9 No, OS
      Fibula (l) 870 90 60 E/D 9 Adult I RS 3 8 No, OS
SMA M16/12-3 Diplodocinae indet. ? Isolated bone Femur (l) 1250 225 - F/E 11 Adult II RS 3 2 Yes, NOS
SMA 0084 “Rich” Diplodocinae n. gen. et n. sp. Articulated specimen Tibia (l) 725 135 80 G 13 Adult III RS 7 1 Yes, NOS
      Fibula (l) 800 80 50 G 13 Adult III RS 7 0 Yes, NOS
SMA 0087 “Chris” Diplodocinae n. gen. et n. sp. Articulated specimen Femur (r) 1440 - - E/F 10 Adult I RS 2 6 Yes, NOS
      Tibia (r) 750 140 ~110 G 13 Adult III RS 7 2 Yes, NOS
      Fibula (r) 800 100 ~70 G 13 Adult III RS 7 0 Yes, NOS

 

 

 

TABLE 2. Description of the seven bone tissue types A-G occuring in the cortices of sauropod long bones (after Klein and Sander, 2008).

Bone tissue type Bone organization Vascular canal organization Primary osteons Secondary osteons Growth marks and EFS
A Non-laminar - - - -
B Woven fibrolamellar bone Mostly longitudinal, high density - - -
C Laminar fibrolamellar Mostly circumferential, less dense than in tissue B Starting to form, lamellar bone lining starts to form - -
D Laminar fibrolamellar Mostly laminar, less dense than in tissue C Present, increase in lamellar bone lining Large, open (“young”) -
E Laminar fibrolamellar Mostly laminar, less dense than in tissue D Distinctive, increase in lamellar bone lining Denser than in tissue E, remodeling up to middle of primary cortex May rarely occur
F Laminar fibrolamellar Mostly laminar, clear decrease in density Distinctive, nearly completely filled by lamellar bone Dense, distinctive, remodeling up to two-thirds of primary bone Both may be present
G Haversian If present, mostly laminar If present, distinctive Dense, distinctive, nearly completely remodeled primary cortex Both present

 

 

TABLE 3. The 13 HOS and their correlated BOS, with the seven bone tissue types (after Klein and Sander 2008; Sander et al. 2011b).

Bone tissue type HOS BOS
Type A HOS 1 Embryo
Primarily type A, with type B in outer cortex HOS 2 Embryo to Hatchling
Primarily type B, with type A in inner cortex HOS 3 Hatchling
Primarily type B, with type C in outer cortex HOS 4 Hatchling to Juvenile
Primarily type C, with type B in inner cortex HOS 5 Juvenile
Primarily type C, with type D in outer cortex HOS 6 Juvenile to Subadult
Primarily type D, with type C in inner cortex HOS 7 Subadult
Primarily type D, with type E in outer cortex HOS 8 Sexual Maturity
Primarily type E, with type D in inner cortex HOS 9 Adult I
Primarily type E, with type F in outer cortex HOS 10 Adult I to Adult II
Primarily type F, with type E in inner cortex HOS 11 Adult II
Primarily type F, with EFS in outer cortex HOS 12 Adult II to Adult III
Type G HOS 13 Adult III

 

 

TABLE 4. Remodeling Stages (RS), based on the maximum number of generations of secondary osteons in the inner, middle, and outer cortex (after Mitchell et al. 2017). 

Generations of secondary osteons RS
Inner cortex Middle cortex Outer cortex  
0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 0 2
2 1 0 3
2 1 1 4
2 2 1 5
3 2 1 6
3 2 2 7
3 3 2 8
4 3 2 9
4 3 3 10
4 4 3 11
4-5 4 4 12
4-5 5 4 13
4-5 5 5 14
4-5 6 5 15

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