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TABLE 1. Specimen data for fossil material included in this study.

Specimen ID Location Lithostratigraphy Geologic Age Nature of Specimen
Otodus megalodon
UF-VP-311000 North Carolina, USA Yorktown Fm Pliocene 37 associated teeth
GHC 1 Atacama Desert, Chile Bahía Inglesa Fm Miocene 92 associated teeth
CH-31-46P Florida, USA Bone Valley Fm Miocene 95 associated teeth
UF-VP-460000 Atacama Desert, Chile Bahía Inglesa Fm Miocene 43 associated teeth
GHC 6 South Carolina, USA Hawthorn Group Miocene 1 isolated tooth
Otodus chubutensis
USNM 411881 North Carolina, USA Pungo River Fm Miocene 106 associated teeth
USNM 299832 North Carolina, USA Pungo River Fm Miocene 32 associated teeth
GHC 3 Ica, Peru Caballos Fm Miocene 65 associated teeth
UF-VP-312864 Ica, Peru Caballos Fm Miocene 53 associated teeth
Carcharodon carcharias
GHC 4 Sacaco, Peru Pisco Fm Mio-Pliocene 65 associated teeth
Carcharodon hubbelli
UF-VP-226255 Sacaco, Peru Pisco Fm Miocene Articulated skeleton: 222 teeth, 45 centra
Carcharodon hastalis
GHC 5 Sacaco, Peru Pisco Fm Mio-Pliocene 165 associated teeth

 

 

TABLE 2. Specimen data for 19 modern dentitions. SCW = summed crown width. TL = total body length. Measurements are separated for the different regions preserved: upper left (UL), upper right (UR), lower left (LL), and lower right (LR).

Specimen ID Location Sex SCW (mm) TL (cm)
UL UR LL LR
Carcharodon carcharias
SOP020105018.011 Unknown M 152.99 - 98.39 - 237
F7687 Albany, Australia F 319.99 - 195.3 - 518
C41185 Ponce de Leon Inlet, FL F 191.21 195.1 131.95 129.11 281
R92185 Pointe Vicente, CA F 370.35 355.8 224.9 234.85 536
L11685 Anacapa Island, CA F 361.34 363.78 231.5 231.46 563
SP1394 St. Petersburg, FL M 337.47 344.3 223.96 226.9 474
F102281 Albany, Australia F 152.48 170.82 107.27 109.77 244
Car206 Los Angeles, CA M 84.66 79.94 55.99 55.27 124
RC112885 Los Angeles, CA F 115.04 113.89 82.23 79.68 170
H5384 Ledge Point, Australia F 323.76 320.52 193.48 197.19 594
H10886 Key Largo, FL M 274.32 277.66 186.02 183.56 503
Hubbell (1996, fig. 2) Unknown M - 291.72 - 190.45 440
Hubbell (1996, fig. 4) Unknown ? - 218.35 - 136.67 366
Hubbell (1996, fig. 5) Unknown F - 316.509 - 191.89 518
Hubbell (1996, fig. 6) Unknown M - 298.15 - 182.83 488
H8993 Bunbury, Australia M - 311.73 - 189.36 518
GHC 7 Unknown M - 314.78 - 195.92 520
Isurus oxyrinchus  
GHC 8 San Nicol’s Island, CA F 187.24 182.11 155.15 157.7 320
Isurus paucus
GHC 9 Pompano Beach, FL F 238.48 249.82 215.9 207.32 488

 

 

 

TABLE 3. Body length estimates from 11 fossil dentitions of Otodus and Carcharodon. Summed crown width measured (SCWms) and corrected (SCWc), and total body length (TL). * denotes the best estimate. UL = upper left, UR = upper right, LL = lower left, and LR = lower right.

Catalog # Position SCWms
(mm)
SCWc
(mm)
TL Range
(m)
TL Mean
(m)
Otodus megalodon
GHC 6 L1-L2 133 1266.7 - 1303.9 17.4 - 24.2 *20.3
UF-VP-311000 UL 1055.5 1093.7 15.1 - 20.3 *17.3
  LL 852.4 852.4 17.6 - 26.2 20.8
GHC 1 UL 951.5 1095.0 15.1 - 20.3 *17.3
  UR 947.3 1122.4 15.5 - 20.8 17.7
  LL 689.0 811.5 16.8 - 24.9 19.8
  LR 550.4 781.8 16.2 - 24.0 19.1
CH-31-46P UL 783.5 783.5 10.8 - 14.5 *12.4
  UR 739.5 790.9 10.9 - 14.7 12.5
  LL 612.2 612.2 12.7 - 18.8 15.0
  LR 579.2 611.6 12.6 - 18.8 14.9
UF-VP-460000 UL 519.6 681.9 9.4 - 12.6 10.8
  UR 533.5 685.7 9.4 - 12.7 *10.9
  LL 400.7 540.8 11.2 - 16.6 13.2
  LR 404.8 546.3 11.3 - 16.8 13.3
Otodus chubutensis
USNM 299832 UL 215.4 679.5 9.4 - 12.6 10.7
  UR 576.3 696.9 9.6 - 12.9 *11.0
  LR 400.4 530.3 11.0 - 16.3 13.0
GHC 3 UL 60.1 707.1 9.7 - 13.1 11.2
  UR 668.6 690.7 9.5 - 12.8 *10.9
  LL 379.2 497.0 10.3 - 15.3 12.1
  LR 542.7 542.7 11.2 - 16.7 13.3
USNM 411881 UL 491.5 569.5 7.8 - 10.6 *9.0
  UR 482.7 546.7 7.5 - 10.1 8.6
  LL 389.3 453.2 9.4 - 13.9 11.1
  LR 300.4 429.1 8.9 - 13.2 10.5
UF-VP-312864 UL 357.9 376.3 5.2 - 7.0 *5.9
  UR 269.1 379.5 5.2 - 7.0 6.0
  LL 299.0 336.0 6.9 - 10.3 8.2
  LR 174.3 305.3 6.3 - 9.4 7.5
Carcharodon hastalis
GHC 5 UL 301.2 336.5 4.6 - 6.2 5.3
  UR 322.9 331.5 4.6 - 6.1 *5.2
  LL 232.1 253.9 5.2 - 7.8 6.2
  LR 219.2 223.0 4.5 - 6.9 5.4
Carcharodon hubbelli
UF-VP-226255 UL 291.4 299.2 4.1 - 5.5 4.7
  UR 313.0 313.0 4.3 - 5.8 *4.9
  LL 225.4 229.3 4.7 - 7.0 5.6
  LR 189.2 220.3 4.5 - 6.8 5.4
Carcharodon carcharias
GHC 4 UL 191.6 256.1 3.5 - 4.8 4.0
  UR 249.7 256.4 3.5 - 4.8 *4.0
  LL 88.4 187.3 3.9 - 5.8 4.6
  LR 178.5 195.3 4.0 - 6.0 4.8

 

 

TABLE 4. Comparison of different methods for estimating body length: Shimada (2002a), Shimada (2019), and this study. All estimates are in meters. * denotes the best estimate. UL = upper left, UR = upper right, LL = lower left, and LR = lower right.

Catalog # Tooth Position Shimada (2002a) Shimada
(2019)
SCW
(Range)
SCW
(Mean)
SCW
(Linear Fn)
SCW
(Power Fn)
Otodus megalodon
GHC 6 L1-L2 16.4 - 17.4 - 17.4 - 24.2 *20.3 *20.1 21.6
UF-VP-311000 UL 11.4 - 31.6 12.0 15.1 - 20.3 *17.3 *17.3 18.5
  LL 11.6 - 41.1 10.3 17.6 - 26.2 20.8 21.6 24.8
GHC 1 UL 12.5 - 38.1 12.3 15.1 - 20.3 *17.3 *17.4 18.5
  UR 13.1 - 30.0 12.8 15.5 - 20.8 17.7 17.8 19.0
  LL 13.1 - 65.1 10.7 16.8 - 24.9 19.8 20.6 23.5
  LR 12.3 - 29.1 10.5 16.2 - 24.0 19.1 19.8 22.5
CH-31-46P UL 9.3 - 19.8 9.3 10.8 - 14.5 *12.4 *12.4 13.0
  UR 9.1 - 20.2 9.3 10.9 - 14.7 12.5 12.5 13.1
  LL 9.8 - 31.8 8.7 12.7 - 18.8 15.5 15.5 17.2
  LR 10.0 - 32.6 8.7 12.6 - 18.8 15.5 15.5 17.1
UF-VP-460000 UL 9.3 - 19.4 9.7 9.4 - 12.6 10.8 10.8 11.2
  UR 9.2 - 21.8 9.3 9.4 - 12.7 *10.9 *10.9 11.3
  LL 9.3 - 16.7 8.3 11.2 - 16.6 13.7 13.7 14.9
  LR 9.8 - 16.6 8.6 11.3 - 16.8 13.8 13.8 15.1
Otodus chubutensis  
USNM 299832 UL 7.7 - 10.0 - 9.4 - 12.6 10.7 10.8 11.2
  UR 7.5 - 19.4 - 9.6 - 12.9 *11.0 *11.0 11.5
  LR 8.4 - 15.7 7.6 11.0 - 16.3 13.0 13.4 14.6
GHC 3 UL - - 9.7 - 13.1 11.2 11.2 11.7
  UR 7.3 - 16.5 7.5 9.5 - 12.8 *10.9 *10.9 11.3
  LL 8.1 - 23.7 - 10.3 - 15.3 12.1 12.5 13.6
  LR 7.9 - 29.8 7.3 11.2 - 16.7 13.3 13.7 15.0
USNM 411881 UL 5.5 - 13.9 5.9 7.8 - 10.6 *9.0 *9.0 9.3
  UR 5.3 - 14.9 6.0 7.5 - 10.1 8.6 8.6 8.9
  LL 6.3 - 31.8 6.1 9.4 - 13.9 11.1 11.4 12.3
  LR 6.1 - 26.5 5.9 8.9 - 13.2 10.5 10.8 11.6
UF-VP-312864 UL 4.1 - 14.2 4.3 5.2 - 7.0 *5.9 *5.9 6.0
  UR 4.4 - 10.8 4.5 5.2 - 7.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
  LL 5.1 - 31.3 5.2 6.9 - 10.3 8.2 8.4 8.8
  LR 5.6 - 24.1 - 6.3 - 9.4 7.5 7.6 7.9
Carcharodon hastalis
GHC 5 UL 4.5 - 5.6 5.6 4.6 - 6.2 5.3 5.3 5.3
  UR 4.0 - 5.5 5.5 4.6 - 6.1 *5.2 *5.2 5.2
  LL 4.6 - 8.5 5.9 5.2 - 7.8 6.2 6.3 6.4
  LR 3.4 - 6.1 5.5 4.5 - 6.9 5.4 5.5 5.6
Carcharodon hubbelli
UF-VP-226255 UL 4.4 - 7.1 4.4 4.1 - 5.5 4.7 4.7 4.7
  UR 3.3 - 6.1 4.4 4.3 - 5.8 *4.9 *4.9 4.9
  LL 4.3 - 7.0 4.3 4.7 - 7.0 5.6 5.7 5.8
  LR 4.3 - 5.8 4.3 4.5 - 6.8 5.4 5.5 5.5
Carcharodon carcharias
GHC 4 UL 3.0 - 4.8 4.1 3.5 - 4.8 4.0 4.0 4.0
  UR 3.1 - 5.0 4.3 3.5 - 4.8 *4.0 *4.0 4.0
  LL 4.0 - 4.6 4.4 3.9 - 5.8 4.6 4.6 4.6
  LR 3.9 - 6.8 4.4 4.0 - 6.0 4.8 4.8 4.8

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