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FIGURE 1. New findings of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis remains in Western and Eastern Siberia. Red - new localities and finds, yellow - previously described localities. 1, Kytmanovo. 2, Biysk. 3, Asino. 4, Kindal. 5, Krasniy Yar, Tomsk Province. 6, Berdsk. 7, Krasniy Yar, Novosibirsk Province. 8, Bibiha. 9, Taradanovo. 10, Utuskun. 11, Omsk. 12, Kachulka. 13, Irkutsk Province.

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FIGURE 2. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia); the horizontal left body of a mandible of a juvenile rhino NSMLL-12, occlusal and buccal views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 3. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia); the horizontal right body of a mandible NSMLL-10, occlusal and buccal views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 4. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Ob River at Krasniy Yar (Novosibirsk Province, southeast Western Siberia); the horizontal left body of a mandible NSMLL 22090, occlusal and buccal views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 5. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Ob River at Krasniy Yar (Novosibirsk Province, southeast Western Siberia); the horizontal left body of a mandible IAE KY-4323, occlusal and buccal views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 6. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Omsk (Omsk Province, southeast Western Siberia); the horizontal right body of a mandible Sk_ui1, occlusal and buccal views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 7. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Biysk (Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia); the horizontal right body of a mandible GR PC-1164, occlusal and buccal views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 8. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Biysk (Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia); the mandible GR PC-1165, 1, occlusal view. 2, posterior view. 3, buccal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 9. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Irkutsk Province (southwest Eastern Siberia); a mandible IRM 2436, occlusal and buccal views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 10. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Tobol Horizon level (Middle Pleistocene); at Asino (Asino District, Tomsk Province, southeast Western Siberia); first left upper molar M1 PM TSU 1/396, 1. buccal view. 2, occlusal view. KB MAN K-397 the horizontal left body of a mandible of the Tobol Horizon level (Middle Pleistocene); Ob River at Kindal village (Kargasok District, Tomsk Province, southeast Western Siberia). 3, buccal view. 4, occlusal view. 5, occlusal view р3 - m3.

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FIGURE 11. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia); the vertical right ramus of a mandible NSMLL-26. 1, posterior view. 2, lingual view. The horizontal right body of a mandible NSMLL-27. 3, buccal viw. 4, occlusal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 12. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River, at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia). 1, second left upper molar M2, NSMLL-5. 2, second right upper molar M2, NSMLL-1; occlusal and anterior views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 13. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River, at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia). 1, fourth left upper permanent premolar P4, NSMLL-6. 2, fourth right upper permanent premolar P4, NSMLL-2; occlusal and anterior views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 14. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River, at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia). 1, fourth left upper permanent premolar P4, NSMLL-7. 2, fourth left upper permanent premolar P4, NSMLL-8; occlusal and anterior views. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 15. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; 1, Ob River (Novosibirsk Province, southeast Western Siberia); second right upper molar M2, NSMLL 21052, occlusal and anterior views. 2, Chumysh River, at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia); third right upper molar M3, NSMLL-3, occlusal and buccal views. 3, third left upper molar M3, NSMLL-4, occlusal view. 4, third left upper molar M3, IAE BB-1, Berdsk (Novosibirsk Province, southeast Western Siberia), occlusal and buccal views. 5 and 6. Omsk (Omsk Province, southeast Western Siberia), third left lower premolar p4, Sk_oms1. 5, buccal view. 6, occlusal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 16. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia). The left ulna, NSMLL-109. 1, medial view. 2, anterior view. 3, lateral view. The right astragalus, NSMLL-107. 4, dorsal view. 5, plantar view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 17. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia). The right radius, IAE CHU-108. 1, anterior view. 2, lateral view. 3, proximal view. 4, distal view. The left tibia, NSMLL-110. 5, distal view. 6, proximal view. 7, anterior view. 8, posterior view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 18. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia). The left Mc II, NSMLL-102. 1, dorsal view. 2, lateral view. 3, volar view. 4, proximal view. Ob River at Taradanovo Village (Suzun District, Novosibirsk Province, southeast Western Siberia). The left Mc IV, IAE TRD-17. 5, dorsal view. 6, medial view. 7, volar view. 8, proximal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 19. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Bijsk (Altay Territori, southeast Western Siberia). The left Mc II, GR PC-203. 1, dorsal view. 2, lateral view. 3, volar view. 4, proximal view. The right Mc II, GR PC-214, 5. dorsal view. 6, lateral view. 7, volar view. 8, proximal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 20. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Ob River at Taradanovo village (Suzun District, Novosibirsk Province, southeast Western Siberia). The left Mc IV, IAE TRD-18. 1, dorsal view. 2, medial view. 3, volar view. 4, proximal view. The left Mt IV, IAE TRD-2. 5, dorsal view. 6, medial view. 7, plantar view. 8, proximal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 21. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Tobol Horizon level (Middle Pleistocene), Ob River at Krasniy Yar (Tomsk Province, southeast Western Siberia). The right Mc III, PM TSU 5/5197. 1, lateral view. 2, dorsal view. The left Mc III, PM TSU 5/2723. 3, lateral view. 4, dorsal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 22. The navicular: Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, Tobol Horizon level (Middle Pleistocene), Ob River at Krasniy Yar (Tomsk Province, southeast Western Siberia). 1, PM TSU 5/2538. 2. PM TSU 5/3063. Coelodonta antiquitatis, Karginian Horizon, Ob River at Krasniy Yar (Tomsk Province, southeast Western Siberia), 3. PM TSU 5/3815. а, proximal view. b, distal view. c, dorsal-medial view.

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FIGURE 23. Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis; Chumysh River at Kytmanovo (Kytmanovo District, Altay Territory, southeast Western Siberia). The left Mt II, NSMLL-101. 1, dorsal view. 2, lateral view. 3, plantar view. 4, proximal view. The left Mt IV, NSMLL-105. 5, dorsal view. 6, medial view. 7, plantar view. 8, proximal view. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 24. The specifics of the wear of the occlusal surfaces of the lower and upper teeth of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (1,3,5) and Coelodonta antiquitatis (2,4,6). Arrows indicate the morphological differences associated with a different biomechanical masticatory system for the browser and the grazer. Scale bar ruled in centimeters.

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FIGURE 25. Indexes of the mandible of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Coelodonta antiquitatis.

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FIGURE 26. Hierarchical cluster diagram based on the reference tooth positions of upper P4-M3 according to the extended mesowear method (Kaiser and Solounias, 2003). Distances = Euclidean distance (root-mean-squared difference). Clusters are based on a set of 27 typical extant species model. Classification follows the conservative (CONS) scheme of Fortelius and Solounias (2000): Browsers (CONS): AA = Alces alces, DB = Diceros bicornis, DS = Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, GC = Giraffa camelopardalis, OH = Odocoileus hemionus, OJ = Okapia johnstoni, OV = Odocoileus virginianus, RS = Rhinoceros sondaicus, Grazers (CONS): ab = Alcelaphus buselaphus, bb = Bison bison, cs = Ceratotherium simum, ct = Connochaetes taurinus, dl = Damaliscus lunatus, eb = Equus burchelli, eg = Equus grevyi, he = Hippotragus equinus, hn = Hippotragus niger, ke = Kobus ellipsiprymnus, rr = Redunca redunca; Mixed feeders (CONS): Cc = Cervus elaphus canadensis, Ca = Capricornis sumatraensis, Gg = Gazella granti, Gt = Gazella thomsoni, Me = Aepyceros melampus, Om = Ovibos moschatus, To = Taurotragus oryx, Ts = Tragelaphus scriptus. European fossil populations of Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis (Kahlke and Kaiser, 2011): SH_SUESS = Su ¨ßenborn, SH_VOI = Voigtstedt; S. kirchbergensis (van Asperen and Kahlke, 2014): SK_B = Bilzingsleben II, SK_WE = Weimar-Ehringsdorf, SK_WT = Weimar-Taubach, SK_U7 = UK MIS 7; S. hemitoechus (van Asperen and Kahlke, 2014): SHM_B = Bilzingsleben II, SHM_U7 = UK MIS 7, SHM_U5u = UK MIS 5e upland, SHM_U5l = UK MIS 5e lowland. Southeast Western Siberia fossil populations: SK_SWS = S. kirchbergensis, CA_SWS = Coelodonta antiquitatis.

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FIGURE 27. Indexes of the lower deciduous teeth of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Coelodonta antiquitatis from Siberian, European, and Chinese regions.

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FIGURE 28. Indexes of the lower deciduous teeth dp1-dp4 of Coelodonta antiquitatis (Ca).

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FIGURE 29. Indexes of the lower deciduous teeth dp1-dp4 of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis (Sk).

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FIGURE 30. Indexes of the upper permanent teeth of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Coelodonta antiquitatis from Siberian, European, and Chinese regions.

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FIGURE 31. Indexes of the lower permanent teeth of Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Coelodonta antiquitatis from Siberian, European, and Chinese regions.

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