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TABLE 1. The tetrapod fauna of the St. Johns area exclusive of the Placerias quarry (modified from Heckert et al., 2005).

Stratigraphic Level and Area Higher Taxa Species-Level Taxa
Uppermost Bluewater Creek Formation/
Blue Mesa Member, Blue Hills and Picket House Draw
Basal Tetrapoda Buettneria perfecta
  Apachesaurus sp.
Amniota incertae sedis Kraterokheirodon colberti
  multiple additional taxa
Synapsida Placerias sp.
Archosauromorpha multiple taxa
Archosauriformes Type H? teeth*
  Type L teeth*
  Acaenasuchus geoffreyi
  Krzyzanowskisaurus hunti
Phytosauria Leptosuchus spp.
Aetosauria Calyptosuchus wellesi
  Desmatosuchus sp.
Suchia cf. Saurosuchus sp.
  Poposaurus gracilis
Rauisuchidae Rauisuchidae indet.
Sphenosuchia Parrishia sp.
  Sphenosuchia indet.
Theropoda at least one taxon
trace fossils vertebrate coprolites
Lower Chinle Group, Big Hollow Wash    
Basal Tetrapoda Buettneria perfecta
Phytosauria Smilosuchus sp.
Aetosauria Calyptosuchus wellesi
  Desmatosuchus haplocerus
Rauisuchidae “Postosuchus” sp.

*microvertebrate morphotypes described by Heckert (2004)



TABLE 2. Instances of osteomyelitis in the literature of Mesozoic fossil archosaurs, listed in approximate stratigraphic order.

Age Taxon Element(s) References and other notes Specimen(s)
Late Cretaceous Majungasaurus crenatissimus amputated tail, also possibly a left pedal phalanx Farke and O’Connor (2007) FMNH PR 2294
Late Cretaceous Hadrosaur tibia Tanke in Tanke and Rothschild (2002) CMN 41201
Late Cretaceous Edmontosaurus annectens left metacarpals III and IV* Moodie (1926), Rothschild (1997) USNM 3814
Late Cretaceous Ankylosaurids vertebrae Arbour and Currie (2011); osteomyelitis or other conditions Various
Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex (“Sue”) humerus and tibia Larson (2001), Rega and Brochu (2001), Brochu (2002) FMNH PR 2081
Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex phalanx I-1 Rothschild et al. (1997b); infection preceded by gout TMP 92.36.328
Late Cretaceous Tyrannosaurus rex (“Jane”) pedal phalanx Vittore and Henderson (2013) BMR P2002.4.1
Late Cretaceous Titanosauridae indet. caudal vertebrae García et al. (2017) MCS-PV 183
Early Cretaceous Tenontosaurus tilletti dorsal rib, metacarpal IV Hunt et al. (2019) OMNH 58340
Early Cretaceous Leaellynasaura amicagraphica tibia Gross et al. (1993), Hanna (2000); Woodward et al., (2018) NMV P186047
Late Jurassic Stegosaurus spp. tail spikes McWhinney et al., (2001) and references therein; at least two individuals DMNH 2818; USNM 6646
Late Jurassic Camptosaurus dispar ilium Moodie (1917), Rothschild (1997) USNM 4282
Late Jurassic Allosaurus fragilis   Peterson et al. (1972); Hanna (2002); Tanke and Rothschild (2002); multiple individuals from
Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry
UMNH VP 1657, 1528, 5599 (up to 5 elements)
Late Jurassic Allosaurus jimmadseni
(“Big Al”)
multiple elements Hanna (2002) MOR 693
Late Triassic Paratypothorax andressorum three caudal dorsal paramedian osteoderms Lucas (2000); Desojo et al. (2013) SMNS 12598

*Reported by Moodie (1926), but the diagnosis of osteomyelitis is from Rothschild (1997). The lack of crateriform lesions and Moodie’s description of the concentric arrangement around vascular channels suggests that this may be callus development associated with fracture repair.

Acronyms: BMR, Burpee Museum of Natural History, Rockford; CMN = Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa; DMNH = Denver Museum of Nature and Science; FMNH = Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; MCS-Pv, Palaeovertebrate collection of the Museo de Cinco Saltos, Río Negro, Argentina; NMV = National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne; SMNS = Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart; TMP = Tyrell Museum of Paleontology, Drumheller; USNM = National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), Washington, DC; UMNH = Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City.



TABLE 3. Incidences of osteomyelitis in necropsied animals, U.S. National Zoo, 1980-2008. Note that Sauropsida in this database includes Crocodylia but excludes Aves.

Taxon Instances Total necropsies Percentage
Sauropsida 12 2230 0.54%
Crocodylia 1 35 2.86%
Aves 63 6307 1.0%
Mammalia 80 7703 1.0%

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