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TABLE 1. Measurements of the bony labyrinth of Proboscidea. Linear measurements are in mm.

  Cochlear canal Semicircular canal lengths Semicircular canal angles Radius
  Cochlear coiling Cochlear length Cochlear aspect ratio Relative volume of the cochlea Radii ratio Stapedial ratio Anterior Lateral Posterior LASC LPSC APSC Anterior Lateral Posterior
Palaeoloxodon tiliensis 752° 33.92 0.46 0.36 8.60 1.90 16.36 9.16 15.45 64° 87° 74° 3.46 2.12 3.51
Elephasb, c 793° 38.10 0.55 0.26 8.80 1.59 18.90 10.15 14.36 67° 86° 63° 4.19 2.58 3.73
Loxodontab, c 670° 39.05 0.49 0.46 7.01 1.53 16.20 8.22 16.54 66° 93° 72° 4.70 0.29 4.79
Elephantimorpha 765° 13.94 0.42 0.31 NA 1.80 24.57 24.28 12.54 66° 93° 74° 4.99 2.67 5.51
Numidotheriumb 584° 16.66 0.51 0.44 3.55 1.81 12.17 NA 14.44e 82°e 92°e 75° 3.27 2.46e 3.21e

e: estimated value; NA: not available.
a After Ekdale (2011).
b After Benoit et al. (2013a, b).
c After Manoussaki et al. (2008).

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