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TABLE 1. Conversion of occlusal relief (OR) and cusp shape (CS) into a mesowear score depending on the method. ScoreA: extended mesowear (refined categories for CS and OR) giving scores between 1 and 17, based on the work of Winkler and Kaiser (2011); ScoreB: conversion of the classic original scoring from Fortelius and Solounias (2000) as proposed by (Rivals et al., 2007) into a score ranging from 0 to 3; Ruler: mesowear ruler developed by Mihlbachler et al. (2011), giving scores from 0 to 6.

Occlusal relief Cusp shape Score A Score B Ruler
High-high Sharp 1 - -
High Sharp 2 0 0
High-low Sharp 3 - -
High-high Round-sharp 4 - -
High Round-sharp 5 - 1
High-low Round-sharp 6 - -
High-high Round 7 - -
High Round 8 1 2
High-low Round 9 - -
High Round-round 10 - -
High-low Round-round 11 - 3
Low Sharp 12 - -
Low Round-sharp 13 - -
Low Round 14 2 4
Low Round-round 15 - 5
High-low Blunt 16 - -
Low Blunt 17 3 6

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 2. Median, mean, and standard deviation of the mean of DMTA parameters by species, type of preparation and facet. lepLsar: anisotropy, Asfc: complexity, FTfv: fine textural-fill volume, HAsfc: heterogeneity of the complexity (whether it is HAsfc9 or HAsfc81). Gr: grinding facet; Sh: shearing facet.

Species   B. brachypus Pr. douvillei Pl. mirallesi H. beonense
Prep.   Hand   Sand Hand   Sand Hand   Sand Hand   Sand
Facet   Gr Sh   Gr Sh Gr Sh   Gr Sh Gr Sh   Gr Sh Gr Sh   Gr Sh
N   7 5   6 3 15 4   13 8 14 12   19 12 6 3   2 1
Asfc Median 1.20 0.72   2.72 0.63 1.24 0.77   2.00 1.96 0.98 0.96   2.23 1.31 0.76 0.92   0.73 1.47
Mean 1.50 0.92   3.36 0.71 1.50 1.03   3.67 2.00 1.27 1.02   2.20 1.38 1.69 0.75   0.73 1.47
SD 0.73 0.65   2.94 0.22 1.00 0.52   3.27 0.89 0.94 0.67   1.07 0.53 1.89 0.31   0.01 NA
epLsar
(*10-3)
Median 1.70 1.83   1.90 2.96 2.60 2.53   2.32 1.94 2.46 5.60   2.39 2.06 3.01 3.33   1.46 1.33
Mean 2.56 1.98   1.87 3.58 2.81 2.41   2.30 2.39 3.36 5.70   2.43 2.23 2.95 3.67   1.46 1.33
SD 1.58 0.44   0.78 3.01 1.68 1.34   1.79 1.74 2.14 2.21   1.06 1.09 0.93 2.02   0.12 NA
FTfv
(*104)
Median 4.76 1.98   6.58 2.38 5.39 2.66   4.27 4.29 4.05 2.34   5.27 3.13 3.73 4.23   2.65 2.76
Mean 4.78 1.63   5.94 2.54 5.21 3.85   4.80 3.99 4.20 2.35   5.31 2.97 4.22 4.50   2.65 2.76
SD 1.10 0.96   1.99 0.89 2.50 2.57   2.14 1.67 1.99 1.34   1.97 0.61 1.57 0.73   0.31 NA
HAfsc9 Median 0.27 0.23   0.32 0.24 0.32 0.18   0.30 0.35 0.21 0.16   0.31 0.29 0.27 0.22   0.25 0.18
Mean 0.34 0.27   0.33 0.24 0.32 0.18   0.34 0.58 0.26 0.19   0.39 0.34 0.29 0.31   0.25 0.18
SD 0.20 0.11   0.10 0.07 0.14 0.03   0.23 0.58 0.10 0.15   0.23 0.17 0.13 0.20   0.08 NA
HAfsc81 Median 0.49 0.46   0.69 0.52 0.56 0.37   0.70 0.78 0.40 0.40   0.72 0.59 0.45 0.53   0.46 0.76
Mean 0.61 0.51   0.68 0.51 0.66 0.39   0.72 1.30 0.50 0.42   0.76 0.61 0.58 0.58   0.46 0.76
SD 0.28 0.18   0.13 0.06 0.26 0.10   0.26 1.40 0.20 0.17   0.30 0.14 0.36 0.14   0.05 NA

 

 

 

 

TABLE 3. Descriptive statistics (sample size, median, mean, standard deviation of the mean) of mesowear score by species and method. ScoreA: extended mesowear giving scores between 1 and 17, based on the work of Winkler and Kaiser (2011); ScoreB: conversion of the classic original scoring from Fortelius and Solounias (2000) as proposed by Rivals et al. (2007) into a score ranging from 0 to 3; Ruler: mesowear ruler developed by Mihlbachler et al. (2011), giving score from 0 to 6. Only one tooth per specimen was considered.

    B. brachypus Pr. douvillei Pl. mirallesi H. beonense
    ScoreA ScoreB Ruler ScoreA ScoreB Ruler ScoreA ScoreB Ruler ScoreA ScoreB Ruler
All Teeth                          
  N 2 2 2 31 31 31 32 32 32 13 13 13
  Median 10.5 2 3.5 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2
  Mean 10.5 2 3.5 7.42 0.90 1.90 7.61 0.98 2 7.19 0.77 1.77
  SD 6.36 1.41 2.12 3.69 0.83 1.54 3.93 0.81 1.50 2.63 0.44 0.83
Deciduous
only
                         
  N / / / 7 7 7 9 9 9 3 3 3
  Median / / / 8 1 1 8 1 1 9 1 1
  Mean / / / 7.71 0.71 1.71 6.67 0.67 1.22 6.33 0.67 1.33
  SD / / / 3.55 0.76 1.50 2.18 0.5 0.67 4.62 0.58 1.53
Permanent
only
                         
  N 2 2 2 27 27 27 24 24 24 9 9 9
  Median 10.5 2 3.5 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2
  Mean 10.5 2 3.5 7.44 0.93 2 7.98 1.10 2.25 7.39 0.78 1.89
  SD 6.36 1.41 2.12 3.94 0.87 1.62 4.32 0.86 1.62 2.15 0.44 0.60

 

 

 

 

TABLE 4. Minimum number of individuals (NI) at Béon 1 by species based on teeth. Corrected MNI based on dental eruption incompatibilities (e.g., no m3/M3 in wear associated with deciduous teeth but d1/D1) as proposed by Hullot and Antoine (2020).

  MNI Tooth Corrected
MNI
Teeth
B. brachypus 3 left m3 3 left m3
Pr. douvillei 7 right M2 12 right M2 + left D4
Pl. mirallesi 8 left p4 9 left P4 + left d2
H. beonense 3 left m1 3 left m1
Total 21   27  

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 5. Hypoplasia (all type) and LEH prevalence by species and tooth type.

  Number of teeth All types of hypoplasia LEH only
      Milk   Permanent All Milk   Permanent   All
  Milk Permanent N %   N % % total N %   N %   % total % of
hypoplastic
teeth
B. brachypus 1 45 1 100.00   12 26.67 28.26 1 100.00   5 11.11   13.04 46.15
Pr. douvillei 90 264 21 23.33   72 27.27 26.27 12 13.33   36 13.64   13.56 51.61
Pl. mirallesi 76 264 12 15.79   86 32.58 28.82 11 14.47   43 16.29   15.88 55.10
H. beonense 30 62 1 3.33   11 17.74 13.04 1 3.33   5 8.06   6.52 50.00
Total 197 635 35 17.77   181 28.50 4.21 25 12.69   89 14.02   13.70 52.78

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE 6. Summary of microwear pattern by species and DMTA parameter. epLsar: anisotropy; Asfc: complexity; FTfv: fine textural fill volume; HAsfc: heterogeneity of the complexity (9 and 81 cells).

  epLsar Asfc FTfv HAsfc9 HAsfc81
B. brachypus Low Low-Moderate Low-High Moderate Moderate
Pr. douvillei Moderate Low-Moderate Moderate-High Low-Moderate Low-Moderate
Pl. mirallesi Moderate-High Low Low-Moderate Low Low
H. beonense Moderate Low-Moderate Moderate-High Moderate Moderate
C. simum High Low - Moderate High Low Low
D. sumatrensis High Low Low Low Low
D. bicornis Low Moderate - High Moderate Moderate-High Moderate-High
R. sondaicus Low High High High High
R. unicornis Moderate High Moderate Moderate Moderate

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