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TABLE 1. Summary of morphometric and morphogenetic models proposed to study ectochocleate cephalopods in chronological order. The selection criteria were the description of new parameters, indices, or rates. Here we do not include models used to study the conch functional morphology (see text).

Name References
Linear Dimensions Moseley, 1838; Sandberger, 1851, 1853, 1857; Trueman, 1940
Raupian Model Raup, 1961, 1966, 1967; Raup and Michaelson, 1965
Logarithmic Model Burnaby, 1966
Modified Raupian Model for Carboniferous ammonoids Saunders and Andrew, 1984
Wire-cage Models Savazzi, 1985
Ammonoid Descriptors Model Smith, 1986
Growing Tube Model for Heteromorphs Okamoto, 1988
Sectorial Spacing Model Checa, 1991
Korn's Modified Raupian Model or 'Standard Model' Korn, 1991, 1997, 1999, 2010; Klug et al., 2015
Weighted Standardization Model Hohenegger and Tatzreiter, 1992
Reaction-Diffusion Model Hammer and Bucher, 1999
Morphometric Models for Ancyloceratidae Kakabadze and Hoedemaeker, 2004; Bersac and Bert, 2020
Piggyback Whorls Model Ubukata et al., 2008
Modified Raupian Model for nautiloids Wani and Ayyasami, 2009; Wani and Mapes, 2010
Free-Form Vector Model Urdy et al., 2010
ADA Model Parent et al., 2012
Modified Raupian Model for early ammonoids De Baets et al., 2013
Morphomechanical Model Moulton et al., 2015; Erlich et al., 2016

 

 

TABLE 2. Information of the 50 specimens used in this work in alphabetical order.

No. ID Age max Age min Specimen # Locality Country Reference
1 Achguigites tafilaltensis
Klug, 2002
402.50 391.90 MB.C.15691.1 Tafilalt Morocco Ebbighausen et al., 2011
2 Acrocanites disparilis
Korn et al., 2010
360.70 345.30 MB.C.19025.1 Mouydir Algeria Korn et al., 2010
3 Acutimitoceras depressum
Vöhringer, 1960
358.90 346.70 MB.C.10152.2 Aguelmous Morocco Ebbighausen and Bockwinkel, 2007
4 Allothalassoceras bogoslovskayae
Leonova, 1989
303.40 272.50 PIN 3591/411 Pamir Tajikistan Leonova and Boiko, 2011
5 Almites invariabilis
Ruzhencev, 1933
290.10 279.50 PIN 317/12337 Aktobe Kazakhstan Leonova, 2011
6 Ammonellipsites pareyni
Ebbighausen et al., 2010
348.50 345.30 MB.C.18604.5 Gourara Algeria Ebbighausen et al., 2010
7 Aristoceras appressum
Ruzhencev, 1950
305.00 294.60 PIN 318/1500 Aktobe Kazakhstan Leonova, 2011
8 Artinskia artiensis
Grünewaldt, 1860
295.00 279.50 203595 Aktobe Kazakhstan Leonova, 2011
9 Baculites cazadorianus
Paulcke, 1907
85.80 84.90 DJ.1507.120 Brandy Bay Antarctica Kennedy et al., 2007
10 Beloceras sp.
Hyatt, 1886
383.70 376.10 PM−29053 Erfoud Morocco Ubukata et al., 2008
11 Brahmaites (Brahmaites) mikobokensis
Collignon, 1971
70.60 66.04 SAM-PCZ22196 Zululand South Africa Kennedy and Klinger, 2012
12 Colchidites pseudovulanensis
Kakabadze and Hoedemaeker, 2004
129.40 125.00 RGM 353 680 Galan Colombia Kakabadze and Hoedemaeker, 2004
13 Deshayesites grandis
Spath, 1930
122.46 99.7 GSM Zm1917 Atherfield England Bersac and Bert, 2012
14 Dieneroceras tientungense
Chao, 1959
251.30 247.20 PIMUZ 25970 Guangxi China Brayard and Bucher, 2008
15 Discoclymenia cucullate
Buch, 1839
364.70 360.70 Ü164/10 Fezzou Morocco Becker, 1995
16 Agoniatites (Fidelites) fidelis
Barrande, 1865
391.90 388.10 L133 Koneprusy Czech Republic Chlupáč and Turek, 1983
17 Geyeroceras cylindricum
Sowerby,1831
201.30 190.80 No. 5798.Hm Töpe Valley Romania Tomas and Pálfy, 2007
18 Girtyoceras meslerianum
Girty, 1909
336.00 326.40 PM−29068 Oklahoma USA Ubukata et al., 2008
19 Grossouvrites joharae
Salazar et al., 2010
70.60 66.04 IAA-Pi265 Marambio Island Antarctica Ubukata et al., 2008
20 Gunnarites antarcticus
Weller, 1903
70.60 66.04 CPBA-8841 Marambio Island Antarctica Coll. Paleontología Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
21 Hammatocyclus pollex
Ebbighausen et al., 2010
360.70 345.30 MB.C.18601.1 Gourara Algeria Ebbighausen et al., 2010
22 Hypacanthoplites sp.
Spath, 1923
112.60 89.3 RUB-Pal 11253B Werner Beckert Germany Coll. Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany)
23 Imitoceras dimidium
Korn et al., 2010
360.70 345.30 MB.C.18859.3 Mouydir Algeria Korn et al., 2010
24 Juraphyllites gigas
Fucini 1901
196.50 189.60 No. 5810.H Alsórákos. Romania Tomas and Pálfy, 2007
25 Kitchinites darwini
Steinmann, 1895
70.60 66.04 CPBA-16823 Marambio Island Antarctica Coll. Paleontología Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
26 Kossmaticeras (Natalites) erbeni
Stinnesbeck, 1986
70.60 66.04 CPUC/Q/TO/3644 Cocholgüe Chile Salazar et al., 2010
27 Kutatissites densecostatus
Kakabadze, 1981
129.40 125.00 RGM 353 840 Galan Colombia Kakabadze and Hoedemaeker, 2004
28 Lissoceras inflatum
Wetzel, 1950
170.30 168.30 MGUPT-PU 112706 Sully France Pavia and Fernandéz-López, 2019
29 Maorites densicostatus
Kilian and Reboul 1909
68.30 66.04 CPBA-17199a Marambio Island Antarctica Coll. Paleontología Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
30 Maorites seymourianus
Kilian and Reboul, 1909
71.00 68.30 CPBA-16847 Marambio Island Antarctica Coll. Paleontología Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
31 Meekoceras gracilitati
White, 1879
251.30 247.20 MM−29111 Nevada USA Ubukata et al., 2008
32 Neodeshayesites columbianus
Riedel, 1938
112.00 108.00 C12C-4 Mesitas del Colegio Colombia Coll. Museo José Royo y Gómez (Colombia)
33 Neopericyclus arenosus
Ebbighausen et al., 2010
348.50 345.30 MB.C.18603.1 Gourara Algeria Ebbighausen et al., 2010
34 Normannites mitis
Westermann, 1954
170.30 168.3 emp. CT-data Thurnen Switzerland Tajika et al., 2015
35 Otoceras concavum
Tozer, 1967
252.30 247.20 YIG 921/165 Arctic Siberia Russia Monnet et al., 2015a
36 Pachydiscus ultimus
Macellari, 1986
61.50 68.30 CPBA-8854 Marambio Island Antarctica Coll. Paleontología Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
37 Paragastrioceras modulatum
Ruzhencev, 1956
290.10 279.50 PIN 317/4710 Zhil-Tau Hill Kazakhstan Korn and Klug, 2012
38 Paratumaroceras ruzhencevi
Kutygin, 2003
279.50 272.50 GM IGABM 55-563 Verkhoyansk Rusia Kutygin, 2003
39 Pedioceras multicostatum
Kakabadze and Hoedemaeker, 2004
125.00 113.00 RGM 353 635. Villa de Leyva Colombia Kakabadze and Hoedemaeker, 2004
40 Phylloceras consanguineum
Gemmellaro, 1876
155.70 145.50 MM−29121 Sakaraha Madagascar Ubukata et al., 2008
41 Phyllopachyceras forbesianum
D’Orbigny, 1850
84.90 66.04 CPUC/Q/ LT/248 Concepción Bay Chile Salazar et al., 2010
42 Pictetia astieriana
Kennedy and Klinger, 1978
112.60 109.00 MAo-519 Mangyshlak Kazakhstan Hoffmann, 2010
43 Polonoceras subundulatum
Frech, 1887
376.10 364.70 Bockwinkel coll. Montaigne Noire France Korn and Klug, 2002
44 Posttornoceras sapiens
Korn, 1999
369.60 367.60 GPIT 1850-31 Rich Sidi Ali Morocco Korn, 1999
45 Proarceste bramantei
Mojsisovics 1869
247.20 242.00 PIMUZ 25356 Oliver Gulch USA Monnet and Bucher, 2005
46 Proleymeriella schrammeni
Jacob, 1907 (adult)
112.6 109.00 RUB-Pal 11285 Wolgast-Hohendorf Germany Coll. Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany)
47 Proleymeriella schrammeni
Jacob, 1907 (juvenile)
112.6 109.00 RUB-Pal 11285 Wolgast-Hohendorf Germany Coll. Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany)
48 Pseudophyllites indra
Forbes, 1846
84.90 66.04 AQ203 Koppeh Dagh Iran Niebuhr et al., 2016
49 Roinghites aktubensis
Bogoslovskii 1971
370.00 367.60 Ebbighaussen coll. Aktobe Kazakhstan Korn and Klug, 2002
50 Staffites complanatus
Matern, 1931
376.10 370.60 Korn coll. Rhenish Massif German-Belgium Korn and Klug, 2002

 

 

TABLE 3. Eigenvalue, percentage of variance, and cumulative percentage, for the first 10 principal components.

  Eigenvalues % Variance Cumulative %
PC1 0.06 56.92 56.92
PC2 0.02 21.16 78.08
PC3 0.01 10.82 88.90
PC4 0.01 4.78 93.68
PC5 0.00 2.23 95.91
PC6 0.00 1.52 97.43
PC7 0.00 0.91 98.34
PC8 0.00 0.60 98.95
PC9 0.00 0.48 99.43
PC10 0.00 0.24 99.67

 

 

TABLE 4. Summary of MANOVA results for a multivariate linear regression (MLR) with the diameter and the mean stratigraphic age range as independent variates, and the 29 PCs as dependent variates. Abbreviations: MSE, mean squared error; Λ, Wilk’s lambda.

Diameter MAR
R2: 0.14 R2: 0.1447
MSE: 0 MSE: 0.00326
Λ: 0.27 Λ: 0.1839
F: 1.89 F: 3.076
df1: 29 df1: 29
df1: 20 df1: 20
p: 0.07 p: <0.05

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