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TABLE 1. Plesiosauromorph specimens examined for this research.

Specimen Locality Formation Age Current Location Material
QM F12719 Stewart Creek, Dunraven Station, Central Queensland Toolebuc late Albian Queensland Museum 27 isolated vertebrae free of matrix, of which some are crushed and others are cojoined; disarticulated cranial elements, isolated teeth.
QM F11050 (Holotype) Yambore Creek, near Maxwetton, Central Northern Queensland Toolebuc late Albian-early Aptian Queensland Museum A badly crushed skull, 5 vertebrae free of matrix of which 2 are cojoined.
QM F12934 Kentle Downs, south of Hughenden Allaru late Albian Queensland Museum 36 isolated vertebrae free of matrix
RM FR269 Richmond Toolebuc late Albian Kronosaurus Korner 55 vertebrae free of matrix of which some are cojoined, while others are isolated; rib fragments, parts of the right and left front paddles, propodial elements
QM F2085 Flinders River, about 4.8 km. from Richmond. Toolebuc late Albian Queensland Museum 22 vertebrae free of matrix of which some are cojoined while others are isolated.
QM L39 Near Bore Drain on ‘Lydia Downs’ Station, north of Nelia at Julia Creek Toolebuc late Albian Queensland Museum 6 isolated vertebrae free of matrix
RM FR436 Richmond Toolebuc late Albian Kronosaurus Korner 12 isolated vertebrae free of matrix.
QM F171282 Flinders River, about 4.8 km. from Richmond Toolebuc late Albian Queensland Museum Isolated vertebra free of matrix
QM PL Unknown (Central Queensland?)     Queensland Museum 2 isolated vertebrae free of matrix

 

 

 

TABLE 2. PCA scores, percent variance and eigenvalues for shape variables for anterior cervicals of newly described Australian xenopsarian specimens (including previously described QM F3567 from Sachs (2004), but excluding polycotylid QM F12719) and anterior cervicals of non-Australian plesiosauromorph specimens. Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O’Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O’Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O’Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

Loadings PC 1 PC 2 PC 3
HI 0.5269 -0.4248 0.73615
BI 0.83701 0.10892 -0.53623
BHI 0.14761 0.89871 0.41295
Eigenvalue 640.871 275.432 1.78314
% variance 69.805 30.001 0.19422

 

 

 

TABLE 3. MANOVA results with Pillai’s Trace values for group pairs of xenopsarian specimens examined (CV: cervicals; alpha value = 0.05). Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O’Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O’Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

Group 1 Group 2 Pillai's df1 df2 F p-value
Australian elasmosaurs QM F3567 0.5438 3 30 11.92 2.61E-05
Elasmosaurines QM F3567 0.04133 3 92 1.322 0.272
Elasmosaurines Aristonectines 0.8789 3 107 258.9 6.87E-49
O. andamookaensis Aristonectines 0.1005 3 21 0.7819 0.5173
O. andamookaensis Australian elasmosaurs 0.5664 3 28 12.19 2.77E-05
Elasmosaurines V. molyi 0.6565 3 105 66.88 2.92E-24
Elasmosaurines T. keysi 0.147 3 92 5.286 2.09E-03
V. molyi T. keysi 0.7489 3 21 20.87 1.66E-06
V. molyi Aristonectines 0.8344 3 36 60.48 3.92E-14
T. keysi Aristonectines 0.8668 3 23 49.87 3.17E-10
C. colombiensis Australian elasmosaurs 0.2584 3 30 3.485 0.02781
T. haningtoni Australian elasmosaurs 0.4669 3 35 10.22 5.62E-05
T. haningtoni C. colombiensis 0.1759 3 13 0.9252 4.56E-01
C. colombiensis Elasmosaurines 0.4284 3 92 22.98 3.45E-11
CM Zfr 115 Australian elasmosaurs 0.771 3 41 46.02 3.46E-13
AMNH FARB 2254 Australian elasmosaurs 0.5694 3 33 14.55 3.31E-06
Elasmosaurines Australian elasmosaurs 0.4602 3 114 32.4 3.21E-15
Aristonectines Australian elasmosaurs 0.8132 3 45 65.3 1.99E-16
V. molyi Australian elasmosaurs 0.4117 3 43 10.03 3.92E-05
C. colombiensis Aristonectines 0.7155 3 23 19.28 1.79E-06
L. richterae Australian elasmosaurs 0.5687 3 30 13.18 1.15E-05
L. richterae Elasmosaurines 0.7249 3 92 80.83 1.08E-25
L. richterae Aristonectines 0.7695 3 23 25.6 1.64E-07
J. squalea Australian elasmosaurs 0.158 3 36 2.252 0.09894
J. squalea Elasmosaurines 0.4009 3 98 21.86 6.39E-11
J. squalea Aristonectines 0.9184 3 29 108.8 7.01E-16
K. lafquenianus CmZfr115 0.279 3 22 2.838 6.14E-02
K. lafquenianus Australian elasmosaurs 0.8108 3 33 47.13 5.00E-12
K. lafquenianus Elasmosaurines 0.6012 3 95 47.75 6.61E-19
K. lafquenianus Aristonectines 0.9169 3 26 95.67 3.60E-14

 

 

 

TABLE 4. Non-Australian plesiosauromorph specimens examined for this study.

Taxon Specimen Author
Styxosaurus sp.
(“Hydralmosaurus serpentinus”)
AMNH FARB 1495 Cope, 1877 (see Otero, 2016)
Styxosaurus snowii KUVP 1301 Williston, 1890
Elasmosaurus platyurus ANSP 10081 Cope, 1868
Thalassomedon haningtoni DMNH 1588 Welles, 1943
Vegasaurus molyi MLP 93-I-5-1 O’Gorman et al., 2015
Albertonectes vanderveldei TMP.2007.011.0001 Kubo et al., 2012
Aristonectes quiriquinensis SGO.PV.957 Otero et al., 2014
Aristonectes parvidens MLP 40-XI-14-6 Cabrera, 1941
Tuarangisaurus keyesi NZGS CD426 Wiffen and Moisley, 1986
Callawayasaurus colombiensis UCMP 38349 Welles, 1963
“Cimoliasaurus magnus” AMNH FARB 2554 Leidy, 1851
Styxosaurus browni AMNH 5835 Welles, 1952
Indeterminate elasmosaurid CM Zfr 115  
Kawanectes lafquenianus MLP 71-II-13-1 O’Gorman, 2016
Lagenanectes richterae BGR Ma 13328 Sachs et al., 2017
Jucha squalea UPM 2756/1-53 Fischer et al., 2020

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