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APPENDIX FIGURE 1.

Taphonomic interpretations for RM FR436. A. Specimen RM FR436 showing sequence based on size with uniform shearing direction resulting from toppling to either side before shearing. B. Hypothesis 1, with vertebrae oriented according to size and toppling either direction. C. Hypothesis 2, with two sections of the neck deposited on different sides. D. Hypothesis 3, with vertebrae oriented randomly, prior to shearing.

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APPENDIX FIGURE 2.

Plot for height index (HI) against breadth index (BI) for Australian plesiosaurians and non-Australian elasmosaurids. Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O'Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O'Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

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APPENDIX FIGURE 3.

Plot for vertebral index (VLI) against breadth-height index (BHI) for Australian plesiosaurians and non-Australian elasmosaurids. Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O'Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O'Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

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APPENDIX FIGURE 4.

Principal Components Analysis for anterior cervicals of Australian xenopsarians (including polycotylid QM F12719) and non-Australian elasmosaurids using shape variables. Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O'Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O'Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

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APPENDIX FIGURE 5.

Principal Components Analysis for posterior cervicals of Australian xenopsarian specimens and non-Australian elasmosaurids using shape variables. Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O'Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O'Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

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APPENDIX FIGURE 6.

Principal Components Analysis for anterior cervicals of Australian xenopsarian specimens (including polycotylid QM F12719) and non-Australian elasmosaurids using SD-normalised data (cf. Vakil et al., 2020). Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O'Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O'Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

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APPENDIX FIGURE 7.

Plot of PCA versus CH/CW for Australian plesiosaurians and non-Australian elasmosaurids. A. PC1 versus CH/CW. B. PC2 versus CH/CW. Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O'Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O'Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

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APPENDIX FIGURE 8.

Principal Components Analysis versus Vertebral Length Index for Australian plesiosaurians and non-Australian elasmosaurids. A. PC1 versus VLI. B. PC2 versus VLI. Data for QM F3567 and RM FR271 from Sachs (2004); Opallionectes andamookaensis from Kear (2005a); Elamosaurus platyurus, Thalassomedon haningtoni, Callawayasaurus colombiensis and Cm Zfr 115 from O'Keefe and Hiller (2006); Aristonectes quiriquinensis from Otero et al. (2014); Albertonectes vanderveldei from Kubo et al. (2012); Vegasaurus molyi from O'Gorman el. (2015); Tuarangisaurus keyesi from Hiller et al. (2017); AMNH FARB 1495, AMNH FARB 5835, Styxosaurus snowii, and AMNH FARB 2554 from Otero (2016); Aristonectes parvidens from O'Gorman (2016a); Kawanectes lafquenianus from O’Gorman (2016b); Lagenanectes richterae from Sachs et al. (2017) and Jucha squalea from Fischer et al. (2020).

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