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FIGURE 1. Location map and stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropods of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation, and reconstructed skeleton of Bagualia alba. Preserved bones in white and missing elements in black. Stratigraphy modified from Pol et al. (2020) and Figari (2005). Map data: Google, ©2021 CNES/Airbus, Landsat/ Copernicus, Maxar Technologies, Map data ©2021.

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FIGURE 2. Proatlas and atlas of Bagualia alba. A-D, right proatlas (MPEF-PV3301/5) in lateral (A), ventral (B), medial (C) and dorsal (D) views; E - J, atlas (MPEF-PV 3301/18) in left lateral (E), anterior (F), posterior (G), right lateral (H), ventral (I), and dorsal (J) views. Abbreviations: epi, epipophysis; pd, pedicel; poz, postzygapophysis; prz: prezygapophysis. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 5 cm.

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FIGURE 3. Axis of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV3301/13) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), right lateral (C), posterior (D), ventral (E), and dorsal (F) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; apns, anterior process of the neural spine; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina; vk, ventral keel. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 4. Third cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 3301/12) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), right lateral (C), posterior (D), ventral (E) and dorsal (F) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; cr, caudal recess; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; eprl, epipophyseal-prezygapophyseal lamina; mdcprl, medial division of the centroprezygapophyseal lamina; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; str, striations; tpol, intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina; vk, ventral keel. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 5. Fourth cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 3301/11) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), right lateral (C), posterior (D), ventral (E), and dorsal (F) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; mdcprl, medial division of the centroprezygapophyseal lamina; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prepi, pre-epipophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; tpd, triangular process of the diapophysis; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina; vk, ventral keel. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and dotted pattern represents putty. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 6. Fifth cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 3301/14) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), right lateral (C), posterior (D), ventral (E), and dorsal (F) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; cr, caudal recess; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; stpol, single intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tpd, triangular process of the diapophysis; tpol, intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina; vk, ventral keel. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 7. Sixth cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 3301/15) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), right lateral (C), posterior (D), and dorsal (E) views. Abbreviations: al, accessory lamina; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; cr, caudal recess; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; eprl, epipophyseal-prezygapophyseal lamina; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prepi, pre-epipophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; stpol, single intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tpd, triangular process of the diapophysis; tpol, intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina. Dashed line for the reconstructed parts, and hatched pattern for broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 8. Seventh cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 3301/16) in left lateral and ventrolateral (A), anterior (B), posterior (C), right lateral (D), dorsal (E), and ventral (F) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; al, accessory lamina; avk, anterior ventral keel; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; eprl, epipophyseal-prezygapophyseal lamina; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prepi, pre-epipophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; pvk, posterior ventral keel; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; tpd, triangular process of the diapophysis; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 9. Middle cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11040/1) in right lateral (A), anterior (B, posterior (C), left lateral (D), and dorsal (E) views. Abbreviations: epi, epipophysis; eprl, epipophyseal-prezygapophyseal lamina; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; tpol, intrapostzygapophyseal lamina. Dashed line for the reconstructed parts. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 10. Middle cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11040/2) in right lateral (A), anterior (B), posterior (C), left lateral and lateroventral (D), dorsal (E), and ventral (F) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; al, accessory lamina; avk, anterior ventral keel; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; cr, cervical rib; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; eprl, epipophyseal-prezygapophyseal lamina; mdcprl, medial division of the centroprezygapophyseal lamina; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; pvk, posterior ventral keel; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; stprl, single intraprezygapophyseal lamina; tpol, intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tpd, triangular process of the diapophysis; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 11. Middle-posterior cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV3408) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), posterior (C), left lateral (D), ventral (E), and dorsal (F) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; al, accessory lamina; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; dp, diapophysis; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina; vk, ventral keel. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 12. Posterior cervical vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 3349) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), posterior (C), right lateral (D), and ventral (E) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; cpol, centropostzygapophyseal lamina; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; dp, diapophysis; nc, neural canal; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; pp, parapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; stpol, simple intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tpd, triangular process of the diapophysis; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina; vk, ventral keel. Dashed line for the reconstructed parts. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 13. Cervical ribs of Bagualia alba. A, MPEF-PV 11058 in medial and lateral views; B, MPEF-PV 11054 in lateral and medial views; C, MPEF-PV 11057 in medial and lateral views; D, MPEF-PV 11056 in lateral and medial views; E, MPEF-PV 11055 in medial and lateral views. Abbreviations: cap, capitulum; tub, tuberculum. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 14. Anterior dorsal vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11023) in right lateral (A), anterior (B), dorsal (C), posterior (D), left lateral (E) views. Abbreviations: acdl, anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; cdf, centrodiapophyseal fossa; cpol, centropostzygapophyseal lamina; cprf, centroprezygapophyseal fossa; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; dp, diapophysis; epi, epipophysis; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pl, pleurocoel; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prepi, pre-epipophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; spof, spinopostzygapophyseal fossa; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprf, spinoprezygapophyseal fossa, sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; stprl, single intraprezygapophyseal lamina; tpol, intrapostzygapophyseal lamina; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 15. Mid-posterior dorsal vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11027) in anterior (A), right lateral (B), ventral (C), and dorsal (D) views. Abbreviations: cdf, centrodiapophyseal fossa; dp, diapophysis; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pcpl, posterior centroparapophyseal lamina; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; pp, parapophysis; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prcdf, prezygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prpl, prezygoparapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; stprl, single intraprezygapophyseal lamina; tprl, intraprezygapophyseal lamina. Dashed line for the reconstructed parts. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 16. Middle-posterior dorsal neural arches of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11011) in right lateral (A), posterior (B), dorsal (C), and left lateral (D) views. Abbreviations: acpl, anterior centroparapophyseal lamina; cdf, centrodiapophyseal fossa; dp, diapophysis; hypo, hyposphene; lspol, lateral spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; mcpol, medial centropostzygapophyseal lamina; mspol, medial spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; ns, neural spine; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pcpl, posterior centroparapophyseal lamina; pocdf, postzygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prcdf, prezygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prpl, prezygoparapophyseal lamina; prsl, prespinal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; sdf, spinodiapophyseal fossa; spof, spinopostzygapophyseal fossa; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina. Dashed line for the reconstructed parts. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 17. Posterior dorsal vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11000) in right lateral (A), anterior (B), left lateral (C), posterior (D), ventral (E), and dorsal (F) views. Abbreviations: cdf, centrodiapophyseal fossa; cpol, centropostzygapophyseal lamina; dp, diapophysis; hypa, hypantrum; hypo, hyposphene; lspol, lateral spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; mspol, medial spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; pcdl, posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina; pocdf, postzygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; podl, postzygodiapophyseal lamina; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, parapophysis; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prcdf, prezygapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prpl, prezygoparapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; sdf, spinodiapophyseal fossa; spof, spinopostzygapophyseal fossa; sprf, spinoprezygapophyseal fossa; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and dotted pattern represents putty. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

 

 

 

 

FIGURE 18. Dorsal ribs of Bagualia alba. A, MPEF-PV 11052 in posterior view; B, MPEF-PV 11053 in anterior and posterior views. Abbreviations: cap, capitulum; tub, tuberculum. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 19. Articulated sacrum, ilia, and caudal vertebrae from first to tenth (MPEF-PV 11011), and possible eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth caudal vertebrae (MPEF-PV 11044) of Bagualia alba. Abbreviations: il,ilium; s2-s5, sacral vertebrae from second to fifth; 1-13, caudal vertebrae from first to thirteenth. Bold numbers indicate specimen MPEF-PV 11044. Dashed line represents reconstructed parts, hatched pattern for broken surfaces, and grey for sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 20. Articulated sacrum and first caudal vertebrae of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11011). A, articulated ilia, sacral and first caudal vertebrae in left lateral view; B, sacral and first caudal vertebrae in left lateral view; C, right ilium in medial view. Abbreviations: aca, acetabular arm of the rib; ala, alar arm of the rib; ip, ischial peduncle; ns, neural spine; p, protuberance; pap, preacetabular process; pop, postacetabular process; poz, postzygapophysis; pp, pubic peduncle; prdl, prezygodiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; s1-s5, sacral vertebrae from second to fifth; sy, sacricostal yoke; tp, transverse process; 1, first caudal vertebra; 2, second caudal vertebra. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 21. Anterior caudal neural arches of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11011). A-C, third caudal neural arch in left lateral (A), anterior (B), and posterior (C) views. D-F, fourth and fifth caudal neural arches in anterior (D), posterior (E), and left lateral (F) views. Abbreviations: ftp, facet for transverse process; ns, neural spine; p, protuberance; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 22. Sixth, seventh, and eighth caudal vertebra of Bagualia alba (MPEF-PV 11011). A-C, sixth caudal vertebra in left lateral (A), anterior (B), and posterior (C) views. D-F, seventh and eighth caudal vertebrae in left lateral (D), anterior (E), and posterior (F) views. Abbreviations: ftp, facet for transverse process; nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; p, protuberance; ped, pedicel; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; sprl, spinoprezygapophyseal lamina. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 23. Ninth and tenth, and possible eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth caudal vertebrae of Bagualia alba. A-C, ninth and tenth caudal vertebrae (MPEF-PV 11011) in left lateral (A), anterior (B), and posterior (C) views. D-F, possible eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth caudal vertebrae (MPEF-PV 11044) in left lateral (D), anterior (E), and posterior (F) views. Abbreviations: nc, neural canal, ns, neural spine; p, protuberance; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; spol, spinopostzygapophyseal lamina; tp, transverse process. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 24. Middle caudal vertebrae of Bagualia alba. A-D, caudal vertebra MPEF-PV 3300 in right lateral (A), anterior (B), dorsal (C), and posterior (D) views. E-H, caudal vertebra MPEF-PV 3324 in right lateral (E), anterior (F), dorsal (G), and posterior (H) views. I-L, caudal vertebra MPEF-PV 3346 in left lateral (I), anterior (J), dorsal (K), and posterior (L) views. Abbreviations: nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; p, protuberance; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; tp, transverse process. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 25. Posterior caudal vertebrae of Bagualia alba. A-D, caudal vertebra MPEF-PV 3319 in left lateral (A), anterior (B), dorsal (C), and posterior (D) views. E-H, caudal vertebra MPEF-PV 3322 in right lateral (E), anterior (F), dorsal (G), and posterior (H) views. I-L, caudal vertebra MPEF-PV 3331 in right lateral (I), anterior (J), dorsal (K), and posterior (L) views. Abbreviations: nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis. Hatched pattern represents broken surfaces and grey form represents sediment. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 26. Haemal arches of Bagualia alba (from top to bottom) in anterior, left lateral and posterior views. A, MPEF-PV 3356; B, MPEF-PV 11025; C, MPEF-PV 3351; D, MPEF-PV 3357; E, MPEF-PV 3353; F, MPEF-PV 3355; G, MPEF-PV 3352; H, MPEF-PV 3359; I, MPEF-PV 3358; J, MPEF-PV 11009; K, MPEF-PV 3354; L, MPEF-PV 3390; M, MPEF-PV 11010. From left to right the haemal arches are ordered as proximal to distal elements. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 27. Simplified reduced consensus tree showing the calibrated phylogeny of non-neosauropod sauropodomorphs with the optimization of axial characters of the neck (i.e., CP ratio, EI index, Body Mass, and pleurocoels). Black circle indicates the change in the EI. Orange circles indicate Cretaceous taxa.

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